The contribution of robots to productivity growth in 30 OECD countries over 1975–2019Journal articleGilbert Cette, Aurélien Devillard and Vincenzo Spiezia, Economics Letters, Volume 200, pp. 109762, 2021

Using a new and original database, our paper contributes to the growth accounting literature by singling out the contribution of robots through two channels: capital deepening and TFP. The contribution of robots to productivity growth through capital deepening and TFP appears to have been significant in Germany and Japan in the sub-period 1975–1995 and in several Eastern European countries in 2005–2019. However, robotization does not appear to be the source of a significant revival in productivity.

Labor shareJournal articleGilbert Cette, Lorraine Koehl and Thomas Philippon, Economics Letters, Volume 188, Issue C, pp. 108979, 2020

We challenge the accepted wisdom of a global secular decline in the labor share. We document three issues: (i) starting periods for the empirical analysis; (ii) accounting for self-employment; and (iii) accounting for residential real estate income. An empirical analysis is carried out on the Euro Area (EA) and ten developed countries. When the three issues are set aside, the orientation of the labor share in the business sector appears not to be a general downward or upward one.

La restructuration des branches professionnelles : pertinence économique, régime juridique et difficultés de conceptionJournal articleJacques Barthelemy, Gilbert Cette and Gepy Koudadje, Droit Social, Issue 5, pp. 455-463, 2020

L'objectif du chantier de la restructuration des branches est de remplacer un paysage conventionnel morcelé par des branches professionnelles plus cohérentes. Ce processus soulève des difficultés. La réponse à ces difficultés peut résider dans l'articulation renouvelée du dialogue social dans les branches et les entreprises. Un moratoire de quelques années peut être utile à un stade de la restructuration. Explications et analyse de Jacques Barthélémy, avocat et Ancien professeur associé à la faculté de droit de Montpellier, Gilbert Cette, Banque de France et Aix-Marseille University, AMSE et Gepy Koudadje, avocate au Cabinet Flichy Grangé Avocats et chargée d'enseignement université Paris-I Panthéon-Sorbonne.

Télétravail et croissance économique : une opportunité à saisirJournal articleGilbert Cette, Futuribles, Volume 437, Issue 4, pp. 77-82, 2020

Voici un cinquième article publié dans le cadre de notre forum « Covid-19 : causes, impacts et stratégies », qui vise à ouvrir les colonnes de Futuribles à divers experts pour évoquer, encore « à chaud », différents aspects, d’ordre économique, social, sanitaire, alimentaire, écologique…, de la crise du Covid-19. Gilbert Cette y montre qu’en dépit des difficultés inhérentes à cette crise sanitaire et aux conséquences économiques qui vont s’ensuivre, il existe aussi une opportunité à saisir dans le domaine du travail. En effet, le confinement et la limitation des déplacements ont permis une large extension du télétravail, qui pourrait perdurer par la suite et permettre, à terme, de relancer la productivité économique, qui semblait en phase d’épuisement depuis plusieurs décennies. S.D.

La notion actuelle de durée du travail peut-elle résister au coronavirus ?Journal articleJacques Barthelemy and Gilbert Cette, Regards, Volume N°57, Issue 1, pp. 13-20, 2020


What Do We Know About Economic and Productivity Growth? A Review Article on Measuring Economic Growth and Productivity: Foundations, KLEMS Production Models, and ExtensionsJournal articleGilbert Cette, International Productivity Monitor, Volume 39, pp. 74-80, 2020

Measuring Economic Growth and Productivity is not only a book on an essential topic, namely that of "growth and productivity", it is also a fabulous ensemble, bringing together contributions from many top specialists. But, in addition, it is a tribute to Dale W. Jorgenson, who has for decades been an exceptional contributor to gaining a better knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and productivity. The volume is dedicated to him. I was present in January 2020 at the annual IPM dinner at the AEA conference, when a preprint of the book was presented to him by the editor, Barbara Fraumeni. I openly admit that it was a very emotional moment.

Convergence of GDP per capita in advanced countries over the twentieth centuryJournal articleAntonin Bergeaud, Gilbert Cette and Rémy Lecat, Empirical Economics, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp. 2509-2526, 2020

This study compares GDP per capita levels and growth rates across 17 advanced economies over the period 1890–2013 using an accounting breakdown and runs Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855, 2007) convergence tests. An overall convergence process has been at work among advanced economies, mainly after WWII, driven mostly by capital intensity and then TFP, while trends in hours worked and employment rates are disparate. However, this convergence process came to a halt during technology shocks, during the two world wars and since the 1990s, with the convergence of advanced economies stopping far from the level of US GDP per capita.

Coase Lecture ‐ The Inverted‐U Relationship Between Credit Access and Productivity GrowthJournal articlePhilippe Aghion, Antonin Bergeaud, Gilbert Cette, Rémy Lecat and Hélène Maghin, Economica, Volume 86, Issue 341, pp. 1-31, 2019

We identify two counteracting effects of credit access on productivity growth: on the one hand, better access to credit makes it easier for entrepreneurs to innovate; on the other hand, better credit access allows less efficient incumbent firms to remain longer on the market, thereby discouraging entry of new and potentially more efficient innovators. We first develop a simple model of firm dynamics and innovation‐based growth with credit constraints, where the above two counteracting effects generate an inverted‐U relationship between credit access and productivity growth. Then we test our theory on a comprehensive French manufacturing firm‐level dataset. We first show evidence of an inverted‐U relationship between credit constraints and productivity growth when we aggregate our data at the sectoral level. We then move to firm‐level analysis, and show that incumbent firms with easier access to credit experience higher productivity growth, but that they also experience lower exit rates, particularly the least productive firms among them. To support these findings, we exploit the 2012 Eurosystem's Additional Credit Claims programme as a quasi‐experiment that generated an exogenous extra supply of credits for a subset of incumbent firms.

Employment Protection Legislation Impacts on Capital and Skills CompositionJournal articleGilbert Cette, Jimmy Lopez and Jacques Mairesse, Economie et Statistique / Economics and Statistics, Issue 503d, pp. 109-122, 2019
Measuring ‘indirect’ investments in ICT in OECD countriesJournal articleGilbert Cette, Jimmy Lopez, Giorgio Presidente and Vincenzo Spiezia, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp. 348-364, 2019

ICT components, such as microprocessors, may be embodied in other capital goods not recorded as ICT in National Accounts. We name ‘indirect ICT investment’ the value of embodied ICT components in non-ICT investment. The paper provides estimates of ‘indirect ICT investment’ based on detailed and unpublished Supply-Use tables (SUT) in 12 OECD countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.Our main finding is that ICT investment appears significantly higher when considering its indirect component, the average increase being about 35%. The inclusion of indirect ICT investment, excluding software (for which firms’ expenditures are difficult to measure), changes significantly the relative position of countries with respect to the ICT intensity of their investments. The inclusion of software further increases indirect ICT investment but the increase is smaller (in percentage) than without this inclusion. A final result, but concerning only three countries, it that the diagnosis of a stabilisation, or even a decrease, of ICT investment in percentage of GDP or of total investment, observed from the beginning of the century, is not modified if we take into account the indirect ICT investment.

The impact of ICTs and digitalization on productivity and labor share: evidence from French firmsJournal articleGilbert Cette, Sandra Nevoux and Loriane Py, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, pp. 1-24, Forthcoming

Taking advantage of an original firm-level survey carried out by the Banque de France, we empirically investigate how the employment of ICT specialists (in-house and external) and the use of digital technologies (cloud and big data) have an impact on firm productivity and labor share. Our analysis relies on the survey responses in 2018 of 1,065 French firms belonging to the manufacturing sector and with at least 20 employees. To tackle potential endogeneity issues, we adopt an instrumental variable approach as proposed by Bartik (1991, Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.). The results of our cross-section estimations point to a large effect: ceteris paribus, the employment of ICT specialists and the use of digital technologies improve a firm’s labor productivity by about 23% and its total factor productivity by about 17%. Conversely, the employment of in-house ICT specialists and the use of big data both have a detrimental impact on labor share, of about 2.5 percentage points respectively.