The Southern Mediterranean region faces different environmental problems such as water scarcity, arable land depletion, air pollution, inadequate waste management, loss of biodiversity, declining marine resources, and degradation of coastal ecosystems. Despite the significant impact of these threats on the quality of life of the population, they are still not consistently part of the development strategies. South Med public policies are predominantly focused on salient threats to socio-economic development such as high unemployment (especially youth unemployment), poverty, income inequality, limited intergenerational mobility, food insecurity, political instability, and military and social conflicts. Current situation limits public policy in implementing widespread environmental instruments requiring alternative approaches. Among the latter, promising solution is offered by GreenTech startups, ecological initiatives that often take the form of small- and medium or social enterprises. They belong to a bottom-up approach where businesses are implemented as a response to current local needs of the society. Despite the high potential of this approach, it develops relatively slowly facing certain constraints due to limits of public policy. This brief focuses on the contribution of GreenTech start-ups to sustainable economic development in South Med countries. It provides an overview of the current opportunities for environmental innovations in South Med countries and the corresponding role of public policy. Then it explores the main refraining obstacles highlighting the experience of three start-ups from Lebanon, Jordan, and Tunisia working in the GreenTech field with a focus on waste and water management and apparel industries, main drivers of their growth, and challenges they are facing. Finally, it concludes with some recommendations to improve the existing public Green Tech Start-ups: Effective Solution to Sustainable Challenges in the South Med
Information provision is a relatively recent but steadily growing environmental policy tool. Its emergency and topicality are due to the current escalation of ecological threats. Meanwhile, its high complexity and flexibility require a comprehensive approach to its design, which has to be tailored for specific characteristics of production process, market structure, and regulatory goals. This work proposes such an approach and builds a framework based on a three-level mathematical program extending well-known two-level Stackelberg game by introducing one more economic agent and one extra level of this sequential game. This study provides simple and very intuitive algorithms to compute optimal multi-tier information provision policies, both mandatory and voluntary. The paper urges for the wide implementation of such efficient environmental policy design tools.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented shock in all areas of human activity. Although the pandemic is not over and a wide range of its impacts has not yet unfolded, governments are required to act promptly to diminish its negative consequences. This brief discloses several keystones of the short- and medium-run policy strategy to let the governments of the Southern Mediterranean countries build back better (WRI, OECD, 2020) after the coronavirus crisis, keeping current environmental challenges in sight.
Environmental policies are among the priorities of the UN agenda and figure highly in national and international policy agendas. This brief focuses on environ-mental taxes and green public procurement (GPP). These two environmental po-licy instruments differ in political viability and in the impact they have on consu-mers and producers. The brief provides a comparative analysis of their efficiency in closed and open economy and reveals the opportunities and threats of (un)harmo-nised environmental policy across countries. The results allow to consider particu-lar implications for the collaboration of EU-MENA countries.