Publications

Most of the information presented on this page have been retrieved from RePEc with the kind authorization of Christian Zimmermann
Consumer impatience: A key motive for Covid-19 vaccinationJournal articleMarlène Guillon, Phu Nguyen-Van, Bruno Ventelou and Marc Willinger, Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Volume 110, pp. 102190, 2024

We study the behavioral determinants of COVID-19 vaccination uptake. The vaccine-pass policy, implemented in several countries in 2021, conditioned the access to leisure and consumption places to being vaccinated against COVID-19 and created an unprecedented situation where individuals’ access to consumption goods and vaccine status were interrelated. We rely on a quasi-hyperbolic discounting model to study the plausible relationships between time preference and the decision to vaccinate in such context. We test the predictions of our model using data collected from a representative sample of the French population (N = 1034) in August and September 2021. Respondents were asked about their COVID-19 vaccination status (zero, one, or two doses), as well as their economic and social preferences. Preference elicitations were undertaken online through incentivized tasks, with parallel collection of self-stated preferences. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination were investigated using a logistic model. Both elicited and stated impatience were found to be positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination decisions. These results suggest that impatience is a key motivational lever for vaccine uptake in a context where the vaccination decision is multidimensional and impacts the consumption potential. Results also serve to highlight the potential effectiveness of public communications campaigns based on time preferences to increase vaccination coverage.

On the (de)stabilization role of protectionismJournal articleNastasia Henry and Alain Venditti, Journal of Mathematical Economics, pp. 102993, 2024

To what extent protectionism affects growth and (de)stabilizes the economies? Although the impact of protectionism on growth has been widely explored without reaching a consensus, few has been said on its impact on macroeconomic stability. The present paper attempts to gauge more precisely its implications using a Barro-type (Barro, 1990) endogenous growth model with public debt and credit constraint where tariffs are a proxy of protectionism. Our main result is to show that when the debt level is high, and the share of foreign goods in total consumption is large enough, increasing tariffs may have a destabilizing effect generating some expectation coordination failures between multiple equilibria. We also exhibit some trade-off between tariffs and growth as tariffs are beneficial only to the low growth equilibrium which may only appear when the international interest rate is low enough. Finally, focusing on the local stability property, we show that the high BGP is always characterized by local indeterminacy, while the low BGP is always a saddle point. We then prove that tariffs may be responsible for the existence of large self-fulfilling fluctuations.

Companies should care about the health troubles of their employees. The results of a French survey on medically assisted reproduction (MAR)Journal articleBlandine Courbiere, Michel Dalmas and Arnaud Lacan, Journal of General Management, pp. 03063070241250091, 2024

Several factors can deeply affect employees’ quality of life at work. Work-life balance, subjective well-being and job satisfaction are three of these factors and it is in the best interest of companies to handle these topics carefully. This is a sine qua non condition of the strength and the quality of relationships with employees. It is also a source of confidence for employees, especially where this is being mediated through Human Resource (HR) processes. Our article studies the quality of life at work in the particular context of an MAR healthcare pathway that exacerbates the consequences for employees. Our work with hundreds of people enduring an MAR process shows that depending on whether firms take this situation into account or not, employees will feel either well-being or ill-being and will have different burnout or job satisfaction levels. All these variables influence their commitment and job performance. These links between a healthcare pathway and quality of life at work on the one hand, and between the quality of work and performance on the other hand, should lead employers to support employees in a personal vulnerable situation. The strength and the quality of the support provided by the HR function and the management is therefore a key point in the level of confidence that exists between firms and their employees.

Abstract reasoning, theory of mind and character development in the schoolJournal articleSule Alan and Betul Turkum, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Volume 221, pp. 307-326, 2024

We show that the development of abstract reasoning and cognitive empathy (theory of mind) is severely hindered when children are deprived of the stimulation of a school environment. We document significantly lower abstract reasoning and cognitive empathy scores in elementary school children who returned from an extended school closure caused by the Covid-19 pandemic relative to proximate pre-pandemic cohorts. This developmental delay has a significant socioeconomic gradient, with underprivileged children experiencing more substantial delays. We also document a significant disruption in the development of socioemotional skills: 0.24 sd lower grit, 0.43 sd lower emotional empathy, 0.06 sd lower epistemic curiosity, and 0.24 sd higher impulsivity. About eight months of school exposure results in a remarkable recovery in abstract reasoning and theory of mind for all socioeconomic groups. However, the measured levels still indicate significant delays relative to the expected developmental trajectories. No notable improvements are observed in socioemotional skills except for curiosity. These findings reveal that the damage school closures inflicted on children goes beyond well-documented academic losses and highlight the crucial role of the school environment in fostering fundamental cognition and socioemotional development in children.

Missing Poor in the U.S.Journal articleMathieu Lefebvre, Pierre Pestieau and Gregory Ponthiere, The Journal of Economic Inequality, 2024

Given that poor individuals face worse survival conditions than non-poor individuals, one can expect that a steeper income gradient in mortality leads, through stronger income-based selection, to a lower poverty rate at the old age (i.e. the "missing poor" hypothesis). This paper uses U.S. state-level data on poverty at age 65+ and life expectancy by income levels to provide an empirical test of the missing poor hypothesis. Using average temperature as an instrument for mortality differentials, we show that instrumented changes in mortality differentials have a negative and statistically significant effect on old-age poverty: a 1 % increase in the mortality differential implies a 16 % decrease in the 65+ headcount poverty rate. Using those regression results, we compute hypothetical old-age poverty rates while neutralizing the impact of the income gradient in mortality, and show that correcting for heterogeneity in income-based selection effects modifies the comparison of old-age poverty prevalence across states.

Conditioning public pensions on health: effects on capital accumulation and welfareJournal articleGiorgio Fabbri, Marie-Louise Leroux, Paolo Melindi-Ghidi and Willem Sas, Journal of Population Economics, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp. 47, 2024

This paper develops an overlapping generations model that links a public health system to a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension system. It relies on two assumptions. First, the health system directly finances curative health spending on the elderly. Second, public pensions partially depend on health status by introducing a component indexed to society’s average level of old-age disability. Reducing the average disability rate in the economy then lowers pension benefits as the need to finance long-term care services also drops. We study the effects of introducing such a ‘comprehensive’ Social Security system on individual decisions, capital accumulation, and welfare. We first show that health investments can boost savings and capital accumulation under certain conditions. Second, if individuals are sufficiently concerned with their health when old, it is optimal to introduce a health-dependent pension system, as this will raise social welfare compared to a system where pensions are not tied to the society’s average level of old-age disability. Our analysis thus highlights an important policy recommendation: making PAYG pension schemes partially health-dependent can be beneficial to society.

Does State Dependence Matter in Relation to Oil Price Shocks on Global Economic Conditions?Journal articleGilles Dufrénot, William Ginn, Marc Pourroy and Adam Sullivan, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, 2024

A common thread in the literature shows that an oil price shock can have a major impact on global economic conditions. We examine the global dimensions of changes to the global oil price and world economic uncertainty using three model types: ordinary least square (OLS); general additive model (GAM); and non-linear vector autoregression (VAR) model with local projections (LP). Our study highlights a positive and statistically significant effect of oil prices on economic uncertainty during non-expansionary periods, yet the impact is negative on economic uncertainty during periods of economic growth. Using a VAR-LP we analyze the global dimensions of a world oil price shock on global economic conditions and investigate whether there is consistency in how an oil price shock influences economic growth, consumer prices and economic uncertainty based on the state of economic conditions. The empirical evidence shows that during an expansionary (a non-expansionary) period, the impact of an oil price shock lowers (elevates) economic uncertainty. The empirical evidence from the three model types taken together indicate a presence of state dependence on the influence of an oil price shock.

The impact of blue and green lending on credit portfolios: a commercial banking perspectiveJournal articleNawazish Mirza, Muhammad Umar, Rashid Sbia and Mangafic Jasmina, Review of Accounting and Finance, Volume ahead-of-print, Issue ahead-of-print, 2024

Purpose The blue and green firms are notable contributors to sustainable development. Similar to other businesses in circular economies, blue and green firms also face financing constraints. This paper aims to assess whether blue and green lending help in optimizing the interest rate spreads and the likelihood of default. Design/methodology/approach This analysis is based on an unbalanced panel of banks from 20 eurozone countries for eleven years between 2012 and 2022. The key indicators of banking include interest rate spread and a market-based probability of default. The paper assesses how these indicators are influenced by exposure to green and blue firms after controlling for several exogenous factors. Findings The results show a positive relationship between green and blue lending and spread, while there is a negative link with the probability of default. This confirms that the blue and green exposure positively supports the credit portfolio both in terms of profitability and risk management. Originality/value The banking system is among the key contributors to corporate finance and to enable continuous access to sustainable finance, the banking firms must be incentivized. While many studies analyze the impact of green lending, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the very few that extend this analysis to blue economy firms.

Fifty years of mathematical growth theory: Classical topics and new trendsJournal articleEmmanuelle Augeraud-Veron, Raouf Boucekkine, Fausto Gozzi, Alain Venditti and Benteng Zou, Journal of Mathematical Economics, Volume 111, pp. 102966, 2024
Salience or event-splitting? An experimental investigation of correlation sensitivity in risk-takingJournal articleMoritz Loewenfeld and Jiakun Zheng, Journal of the Economic Science Association, 2024

Salience theory relies on the assumption that not only the marginal distribution of lotteries, but also the correlation of payoffs across states impacts choices. Recent experimental studies on salience theory seem to provide evidence in favor of such correlation effects. However, these studies fail to control for event-splitting effects (ESE). In this paper, we seek to disentangle the role of correlation and event-splitting in two settings: (1) the common consequence Allais paradox as studied by Bordalo et al. (Q J Econ 127:1243–1285, 2012), Frydman and Mormann (The role of salience in choice under risk: An experimental investigation. Working Paper, 2018), and Bruhin et al. (J Risk Uncertain 65:139–184, 2022); (2) choices between Mao pairs as studied by Dertwinkel-Kalt and Köster (J Eur Econ Assoc 18:2057–2107, 2020). In both settings, we find evidence suggesting that recent findings supporting correlation effects are largely driven by ESE. Once controlling for ESE, we find no consistent evidence for correlation effects. Our results thus shed doubt on the validity of salience theory in describing risky behavior.