# Publications

This paper examines the role of social interactions in contract enforcement within the postcolonial Arab world, with a specific focus on Morocco. Through extensive interviews with members of the industrial elite during the import-substituting industrialization (ISI) period, we uncover a significant risk of contractual breaches. Despite this risk, there was a reluctance to use social connections to penalize those who breached contracts. Legal recourse was also rarely pursued. Instead, business leaders leaned on their social networks to assess potential partners and resolve disputes through bilateral channels. This reliance on social ties was facilitated by the close-knit and compact nature of the business community. In the post-ISI era, characterized by a larger and more diverse industrial elite, there was a noticeable increase in contractual disputes, accompanied by a shift towards more aggressive resolution methods. We present a theoretical model that elucidates how these dynamics naturally emerge from an environment where economic and social interactions are intertwined.

How will structural change unfold beyond the rise of services? Motivated by the observed dynamics within the service sector we propose a model of structural change in which productivity is endogenous and output is produced with two intermediate substitutable capital goods. In the productive sector the accumulation of specialized skills leads to an unbounded increase in TFP, as sector becoming asymptotically dominant. We are then able to recover the increasing shares of workers, the increasing real and nominal shares of the output observed in productive service and IT sectors in the US. Interestingly, the economy follows a growth path converging to a particular level of wealth that depends on the initial price of capital and knowledge. As a consequence, countries with the same fundamentals but lower initial wealth will be characterized by lower asymptotic wealth.

We study a 2-player stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players invest in lobbying activities to alter the legislation in her own benefit. The payoffs are quadratic and uncertainty is driven by a Wiener process. We consider the Nash symmetric game where players face the same cost and extract symmetric payoffs, and we solve for Markov Perfect Equilibria (MPE) in the class of affine functions. First, we prove a general sufficient (catching up) optimality condition for two-player stochastic games with uncertainty driven by Wiener processes. Second, we prove that the number and nature of MPE depend on the extent of uncertainty (i.e. the variance of the Wiener processes). In particular, we prove that while a symmetric MPE always exists, two asymmetric MPE emerge if and only if uncertainty is large enough. Third, we study the stochastic stability of all the equilibria. We notably find, that the state converges to a stationary invariant distribution under asymmetric MPE. Fourth, we study the implications for rent dissipation asymptotically and compare the outcomes of symmetric vs asymmetric MPE in this respect, ultimately enhancing again the role of uncertainty.

We investigate how the relationship between capital accumulation and pollution is affected by the source of pollution: production or consumption. We are interested in polluting waste that cannot be naturally absorbed, but for which recycling efforts aim to avoid massive pollution accumulation with harmful consequences in the long run. Based on both environmental and social welfare perspectives, we determine how the interaction between growth and polluting waste accumulation is affected by the source of pollution, i.e., either consumption or production, and by the fact that recycling may or may not act as an income generator, i.e., either capital-improving or capital-neutral recycling efforts. Several new results are extracted regarding optimal recycling policy and the shape of the relationship between production and pollution. Beside the latter concern, we show both analytically and numerically that the optimal control of waste through recycling allows to reaching larger (resp., lower) consumption and capital stock levels under consumption-based waste compared to production-based waste while the latter permits to reach lower stocks of waste through lower recycling efforts.

We study a 2-player stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players invest in lobbying activities to alter the legislation in her own benefit. The payoffs are quadratic and uncertainty is driven by a Wiener process. We consider the Nash symmetric game where players face the same cost and extract symmetric payoffs, and we solve for Markov Perfect Equilibria (MPE) in the class of affine functions. First, we prove a general sufficient (catching up) optimality condition for two-player stochastic games with uncertainty driven by Wiener processes. Second, we prove that the number and nature of MPE depend on the extent of uncertainty (i.e. the variance of the Wiener processes). In particular, we prove that while a symmetric MPE always exists, two asymmetric MPE emerge if and only if uncertainty is large enough. Third, we study the stochastic stability of all the equilibria. We notably find, that the state converges to a stationary invariant distribution under asymmetric MPE. Fourth, we study the implications for rent dissipation asymptotically and compare the outcomes of symmetric vs asymmetric MPE in this respect, ultimately enhancing again the role of uncertainty.

This paper examines the interaction between three financial markets: energy and non-energy commodities, bonds and equities, in a particular context of high inflation worldwide, that of Russia–Ukraine war. Our data cover the period January 2016-October 2022. Using a SETAR-GARCH C-Vine Copula model, we provide evidence of two inflation breakouts within COVID pandemic and shortly before Russia–Ukraine war, for all assets considered, and particularly for US 10-Year bond, as an inflation-indexed asset. Over the Russia–Ukraine war period, both linear and nonlinear models explain the studied assets’ behavior faced with high inflation. C-Vine Copula analysis shows that oil prices (WTI), as an inflation-producing assets, impact the volatility of financial markets (VIX) in times of war. This analysis indicates also that the NASDAQ index, as an inflation-exposed assets, is sensitive to commodities and energy prices that drive inflation. Furthermore, we find a high positive Kendall’s tau for all combinations between US 10-Year and all other assets. These results provide strong evidence of the association between US 10-Year futures, as a vehicle of inflation, and all studied assets. Lastly, our findings confirm the evidence that Russia–Ukraine war generated two significant shocks, Gas (NG) prices and financial markets’ volatility (VIX). This study is of crucial interest to policy and decision makers to the extent that it provides a framework for understanding, in a context of high inflation, the mechanisms linked to the vehicles for transmitting this inflation, its pricing process, and its impact on the equity market.

We study the behavioral determinants of COVID-19 vaccination uptake. The vaccine-pass policy, implemented in several countries in 2021, conditioned the access to leisure and consumption places to being vaccinated against COVID-19 and created an unprecedented situation where individuals’ access to consumption goods and vaccine status were interrelated. We rely on a quasi-hyperbolic discounting model to study the plausible relationships between time preference and the decision to vaccinate in such context. We test the predictions of our model using data collected from a representative sample of the French population (N = 1034) in August and September 2021. Respondents were asked about their COVID-19 vaccination status (zero, one, or two doses), as well as their economic and social preferences. Preference elicitations were undertaken online through incentivized tasks, with parallel collection of self-stated preferences. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination were investigated using a logistic model. Both elicited and stated impatience were found to be positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination decisions. These results suggest that impatience is a key motivational lever for vaccine uptake in a context where the vaccination decision is multidimensional and impacts the consumption potential. Results also serve to highlight the potential effectiveness of public communications campaigns based on time preferences to increase vaccination coverage.

To what extent protectionism affects growth and (de)stabilizes the economies? Although the impact of protectionism on growth has been widely explored without reaching a consensus, few has been said on its impact on macroeconomic stability. The present paper attempts to gauge more precisely its implications using a Barro-type (Barro, 1990) endogenous growth model with public debt and credit constraint where tariffs are a proxy of protectionism. Our main result is to show that when the debt level is high, and the share of foreign goods in total consumption is large enough, increasing tariffs may have a destabilizing effect generating some expectation coordination failures between multiple equilibria. We also exhibit some trade-off between tariffs and growth as tariffs are beneficial only to the low growth equilibrium which may only appear when the international interest rate is low enough. Finally, focusing on the local stability property, we show that the high BGP is always characterized by local indeterminacy, while the low BGP is always a saddle point. We then prove that tariffs may be responsible for the existence of large self-fulfilling fluctuations.

We introduce a new approach to apply the boosted difference of convex functions algorithm (BDCA) for solving non-convex and non-differentiable problems involving difference of two convex functions (DC functions). Supposing the first DC component differentiable and the second one possibly non-differentiable, the main idea of BDCA is to use the point computed by the DC algorithm (DCA) to define a descent direction and perform a monotone line search to improve the decreasing the objetive function accelerating the convergence of the DCA. However, if the first DC component is non-differentiable, then the direction computed by BDCA can be an ascent direction and a monotone line search cannot be performed. Our approach uses a non-monotone line search in the BDCA (nmBDCA) to enable a possible growth in the objective function values controlled by a parameter. Under suitable assumptions, we show that any cluster point of the sequence generated by the nmBDCA is a critical point of the problem under consideration and provide some iteration-complexity bounds. Furthermore, if the first DC component is differentiable, we present different iteration-complexity bounds and prove the full convergence of the sequence under the Kurdyka-\L{}ojasiewicz property of the objective function. Some numerical experiments show that the nmBDCA outperforms the DCA such as its monotone version.