Chinese policymakers have attached great importance to energy intensity reduction. However, the unprecedented urbanization process exercises additional pressure on the realization of energy intensity reduction targets. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization is necessary for designing effective policies aimed at reaching the next energy intensity reduction targets. This paper empirically investigates the impacts of urbanization on China's aggregate and disaggregated energy intensities using a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces covering the period from 2000 to 2012 and panel estimation techniques. The results show that urbanization significantly increases aggregate energy intensity, electricity intensity and coal intensity.
Le projet de Philippe Grill est d’enquêter sur les origines et les fondements des doctrines et théories relatives aux libertés et à l’égalité. Son approche est proprement philosophico-économique, au sens où elle s’appuie sur l’une et l’autre discipline. Cette exploration conceptuelle des théories économiques et philosophiques, des hypothèses qui les fondent, des notions qui les irriguent, ou encore des masses de données empiriques aux interprétations multiples, voire contradictoires, se révèle cruciale car c’est à partir de ces doctrines et théories que sont conçues et promues les organisations sociales et les politiques publiques qui déterminent « dans quel monde on vit », en décrétant le possible et l’impossible en ces domaines. L’ouvrage contribue ainsi pleinement aux débats actuels d’éthique sociale en fournissant les moyens de définir ce que pourrait être une organisation sociale « humaniste ».
En effet, si l’on veut changer le monde, il faut le comprendre… Sereinement, pédagogiquement, c’est notamment à cette compréhension maximale que nous invite Philippe Grill. La somme encyclopédique qu’il nous propose déploie le panorama d’une philosophie économique où sont convoqués les savoirs contemporains issus de nombreuses disciplines (outre les sciences économiques bien sûr, les autres sciences sociales, la logique, l’épistémologie, les sciences cognitives, les neurosciences, la biologie de l’évolution, etc., ainsi que les engagements ontologiques des nombreux penseurs que l’ouvrage étudie). Ici, point de simple juxtaposition de disciplines, mais une architecture des connaissances qui veut montrer que les conceptions idoines sont nécessairement connexes si l’on entend démêler l’écheveau d’un homo œconomicus authentique, renversant le modèle factice que rabâchent les propagandistes de vulgates économiques outrancièrement simplistes et irréalistes. Ainsi, ce livre est un puissant levier de ce mouvement salutaire. Moins
This paper is a response to Christopher Schinckus (in press) comments on my 2015 International Review of Financial Analysis paper Diversifying financial research: from financialization to sustainability. I first attempt to summarize our argument, and then attempt to draw out further implications for the diversification of academic finance, by connecting our discussion to current debates in the field of critical management studies (CMS).
Presenting low individual returns, but providing households with livelihoods and means to cope with economic vulnerability, micro-entrepreneurship’s evaluation should include both context and heterogeneity. Using a four-wave panel of 9,157 Indonesian households, this study proposes a quantile estimation of micro-entrepreneurship’s effects on four household-level complementary measures of welfare – income, consumption, household, and total assets. It evidences substantial positive but decreasing effects on the four measures, with the highest relative returns for the poorest. For this category, micro-entrepreneurship primarily provides returns in the form of income, translating into higher relative consumption, but more importantly, into a greater relative assets accumulation.
With aging populations, European countries face difficult challenges. In 2002, France implemented a public allowance program (APA) offering financial support to the disabled elderly for their long-term care (LTC) needs. Although currently granted to 1.2 million people, it is suspected that some of those eligible do not claim it—presenting a non-take-up behavior. The granting of APA is a decentralized process, with 94 County Councils (CC) managing it, with wide room for local interpretation. This spatial heterogeneity in the implementation of the program creates the conditions for a “quasi-natural experiment”, and provides the opportunity to study the demand for APA in relation to variations in CCs’ “generosity” in terms of both eligibility and subsidy rate for LTC. We use a national health survey and administrative data in a multilevel model controlling for geographical, cultural and political differences between counties. The results show that claiming for APA is associated with the “generosity” of CCs: the population tends to apply less for the allowance if the subsidy rate is in average lower. This pecuniary trade-off, revealed by our study, can have strong implications for the well-being of the elderly and their relatives.
Trade statistics are perhaps among the oldest official statistics alongside population censuses. Until very recently, trade statistics remained closely tied to their original eighteenth-century purpose of informing the Prince about taxes collected by customs officials; more recently in the mid-twentieth century, they came to serve also in establishing the National Accounts required by the State for managing the economy. Then the world economy became truly global. Trade statistics had to become trans-national and multi-dimensional if they were to be representative of the twenty-first century economic system. The methodology has matured in the 2010s; in the process, trade statistics have gone beyond their initial purpose of serving the State to become a tool for understanding the complex relationships linking various industries across different borders. The resulting information is increasingly used to assess not only the economic dimensions of trade but also its implications in terms of employment and the environment.
We study one of the main concept of online learning and sequential decision problem known as regret minimization. We investigate three different frameworks, whether data are generated accordingly to some i.i.d. process, or when no assumption whatsoever are made on their generation and, finally, when they are the consequences of some sequential interactions between players. The overall objective is to provide a comprehensive introduction to this domain. In each of these main setups, we define and analyze classical algorithms and we analyze their performances. Finally, we also show that some concepts of equilibria that emerged in game theory are learnable by players using online learning schemes while some other concepts are not learnab
We use georeferenced information on the location of violent events in sub-Saharan African countries and provide evidence that external income shocks are important determinants of the intensity and geography of civil conflicts. More precisely, we find that (a) the incidence, intensity, and onset of conflicts are generally negatively and significantly correlated with income variations at the local level; (b) this relationship is significantly weaker for the most remote locations; and (c) at the country level, these shocks have an insignificant impact on the overall probability of conflict outbreak but do affect the probability that conflicts start in the most opened regions.
This article explores the transmission of daytime and overnight information in terms of returns and volatility between Chinese and Asian, European and North American main stock markets. We propose a bivariate analysis with China as benchmark. By testing the constancy of the conditional correlations, we use an extended constant or dynamic conditional correlation GARCH model. The empirical findings show that across the daytime information transmissions, the relationships between China and Asian markets are closer than China and non-Asian markets, whereas through the overnight information transmissions these relationships are inverse. The analysis provides, before the crisis, that the overnight volatility spillover effects are from China to the United States and the United Kingdom. During the crisis, China affects the United Kingdom in terms of daytime volatility spillovers, whereas in terms of overnight volatility spillovers China affects the United States and is influenced by Japan. After the crisis, daytime volatility spillovers are from Taiwan to China, whereas the overnight volatility spillover effects are from China to the United States and the United Kingdom.
We test the effectiveness of a compensation mechanism, adapted from Varian (Am Econ Rev 84(5):1278–1293, 1994 ). When a negative externality is produced the mechanism allows agents suffering from it to compensate those who reduce its production, by way of transfers implemented via a two-stage design. We investigate various factors that might affect the likelihood that subjects coordinate on a Pareto optimum: the size of the strategy space, the number of subgame perfect equilibria and inequality of the payoff distribution. Our experimental findings suggest that the mechanism’s effectiveness crucially depends on the final payoff distribution (after transfers). It is also strongly negatively affected by the size of the strategy space. Finally, the impact of the number of equilibria on coordination only has a weak negative effect. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015