Carolina Ulloa Suarez*, Anna Zaytseva**
Anushka Chawla : anushka.chawla[at]univ-amu.fr
Kenza Elass : kenza.elass[at]univ-amu.fr
Carolina Ulloa Suarez : carolina.ulloa-suarez[at]univ-amu.fr
*Since the early 2000s, some countries in Latin America have implemented fiscal rules to cut down the economic and social costs that fiscal indiscipline causes. However, these rules can breed social costs through other mechanisms, questioning whether its implementation is beneficial or not for this purpose. This paper analyses the effect of the implementation of fiscal rules over income inequality in five Latin American countries. Using the synthetic control approach, I find evidence that the implementation of fiscal rules in these countries has not necessarily affected the existent efforts to bring down inequality. Overall, the results suggest that any economic stigma that may prevent countries from implementing fiscal rules because of unwanted side effects on inequality is unwarranted. On the contrary, it is shown that the type of fiscal rule implemented in each country is what best explains the existence (or lack thereof) of possible social costs such as the increase in income inequality.
**Objective: To evaluate performance of French private practice general practitioners (GPs) practicing in multi-professional group practices (MGP) regarding chronic care management during Covid-19 lockdown. Data Sources: Cross-sectional questionnaire of 1,191 French private practice GPs in April 2020. Study Design: We use self-reported data on frequency of consultations for chronic patients during lockdown compared to their “usual” week before the epidemic. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics and regressions, with the objective to test whether GPs in MGP had significant different responses to the Covid19 crisis. Principal findings: GPs practicing in areas highly affected by the Covid-19 epidemic were more likely to experience a decline in consultations related to complications of chronic diseases. GPs in MGP were less likely to experience a 50% drop in consultations related to follow-up of chronic patients and complications of chronic diseases. GPs in MGP were also more proactive to contact their chronic patients. Conclusions: Quick policy response is needed to alleviate difficulties encountered by GP practicing outside MGPs. Results advocate for further development of integrated care in the long run.