For the period 1984-1997, we find that state-level minimum wage hikes had no negative employment impact whereas federal hikes did. This dichotomy may account for the differences between the results of the 'new economics of the minimum wage' and time series studies.
Cet ouvrage présente les outils de base de l'analyse économétrique et les illustre de nombreuses applications. Il porte une attention particulière au type de données utilisées (coupe transversale, séries chronologiques). Il s'adresse aux étudiants de dernière année de licence ou de master 1 (économie, gestion, MASS, économétrie, etc.) et aux étudiants de certaines classes préparatoires. Il sera également utile aux étudiants se spécialisant dans le domaine de l'analyse et des études économiques. En un minimum de temps, il permet : de s'approprier les outils économétriques mobilisés dans les analyses économiques ; de se familiariser avec leurs applications concrètes grâce à de nombreux exemples commentés ; de contrôler l'acquisition des fondements et leurs applications grâce à 60 questions de OCM corrigées ; de s'entraîner grâce aux 16 exercices complets, tous corrigés ; d'entreprendre de manière autonome ses propres études économétriques grâce à un guide de la démarche méthodologique à adopter pour de tels travaux.
Les études récentes de l'impact du salaire minimum sur l'emploi mettent en cause un consensus qui s'est établi parmi des économistes. Jusqu'en 1980, il semblerait que les hausses du salaire minimum donnent lieu à une diminution de l'emploi des jeunes travailleurs. Or, l'expérience des années 1980 et 1990 a mis en cause cette conclusion. Dans cet article, nous évaluons la portée des études récentes. Nous avançons l'hypothèse selon laquelle les hausses du salaire minimum ont bien un effet négatif sur l'emploi des jeunes mais les relèvements des salaires minima instaurés par des états individuels n'ont eu aucun impact sur l'emploi. La distinction des deux types de salaire minimum permet de réconcilier les résultats obtenus avant les années 1980 ainsi que ceux des études plus récentes qui n'identifient aucun impact sur l'emploi.
The work of Card and Krueger has cast doubt on the nature of the relationship between the minimum wage and teenage employment in the United States. The earlier ‘consensus’ finding of a small but statistically significant negative effect was based on time series data whereas Card and Krueger's findings are based mainly on cross‐section data. In this article, we re‐examine the time series relationship between minimum wage and teenage employment. We find that previous models break down due to their inability to capture changes in the trend, cyclical and seasonal components of teenage employment. We propose an alternative approach in which these components are treated as stochastic components and which contains the traditional, deterministic approach as a special case. The model when estimated up to 1979 accurately predicts what happens to teenage employment subsequently, when the minimum wage was frozen after 1981 and then increased quite substantially in the early 1990s. Moreover, we find that there is a significant, negative effect of the minimum wage on teenage employment and its size has hardly changed during the 1980s and early 1990s.
The impact of international trade on labour markets in developed countries will be different according to the degree of competition in product markets, the flexibility of the labour market and the skill intensity of production. An econometric analysis of the impact of trade in France has been undertaken using sectoral data for the period 1985-p1992. It is found that lower relative import prices reduce the relative employment of low skill workers in the first half the period and reduce their relative wages in the second half. In both cases the effect is more pronounced in sectors where the skill intensity of production is initially low.
Low-skilled workers face a future of joblessness or low-wage, insecure employment as technological change and globalization impact on the advanced economies. 'The European social model' of collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment rights, and social welfare support is alternately cited as both cause and cure. The contributions to this book review the evidence and find that, while the European model cannot remedy adverse global trends affecting low-skilled workers, it does achieve significant success in moderating them. Collective bargaining and wage regulation reduce the incidence of low pay. Minimum wages at prevailing levels provide significant wage protection for more vulnerable workers, without substantial job losses. The significant 'jobs deficit' of Germany relative to the USA in low-wage services is not the outcome of excessively high German wages. Conversely, reliance on wage flexibility to create jobs for the low-skilled does not emerge as economically effective, and can no longer be regarded as the simple panacea.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or "regulate" wage rates for the low-paid. We consider the experience of three countries that have national minimum wages France, Belgium, and the Netherlands--and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining--Germany, Italy, and Denmark. We find that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the United Kingdom and the United States, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labour-market adjustment--employment, unemployment, and gross job flows--vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labour-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to "regulate" low wages. Copyright 2000 by Oxford University Press.
Do low wages help to reduce unemployment and increase competitiveness in world markets? Is minimum wage legislation and collective bargaining harmful to the efficient working of any economy? In answer to these questions, this book examines the impact of low-wage employment on different countries in Europe.
The overall objective of this study is to try and uncover to what extent the borrowing and lending pattern of Chinese urban credit cooperatives (UCCs) leads them to conform to the theoretical view of credit cooperatives and to what degree they are mainly characterized by elements which result from their regulatory environment and the status of China as an economy in transition. We provide evidence from a specially-commissioned survey on the characteristics and functioning of UCCs. Our statistical and econometric analysis points to the tentative conclusion that there are major regional differences in the performance of UCCs both in terms of the quality of loans granted and overall profitability. The latter is also influenced by the quality of the loans made, and this in turn is affected by the number of directors in the UCC and the extent to which the UCC grants loans to state-owned enterprises.