Gravel

Publications

Is India better off today than 15 years ago? A robust multidimensional answerJournal articleNicolas Gravel et Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay, Journal of Economic Inequality, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 173-195, 2010

This paper provides a robust normative evaluation of the spectacular growth episode that India has experienced in the last 15 years. Specifically, the paper compares the evolution, between 1988, 1996 and 2001 of the distribution of several individual attributes on the basis of ethically robust dominance criteria. [CSH Occassional Paper No. 20]

FreedomBook chapterNicolas Gravel, In: Handbook of Economics and Ethics, 2009, Edward Elgar, 2009

The Handbook of Economics and Ethics portrays an understanding of economic methodology in which facts and values, though distinct, are closely interconnected in a variety of ways. From theory building to data collection, and from modelling to policy evaluation, this encyclopaedic Handbook is at the intersection of economics and ethics.

Robust International Comparisons of Distributions of Disposable Income and Regional Public GoodsJournal articleNicolas Gravel, Patrick Moyes et Benoît Tarroux, Economica, Volume 76, Issue 303, pp. 432-461, 2009

The paper provides robust normative comparisons of 12 OECD countries based on their distributions of disposable income and access to two regional public goods: infant mortality and pupil-teacher ratios at public schools. Comparisons are performed using two and three-dimensional dominance criteria that coincide with the unanimity of utilitarian judgments taken over specific classes of utility functions. The criteria succeed in ranking conclusively about 30% of all possible comparisons in the two-dimensional case, compared with 67% for one-dimensional income-based comparisons and 6% for three-dimensional ones. Introducing local public goods seems to worsen the relative standing of Anglo-Saxon countries. Copyright (c) The London School of Economics and Political Science 2008.

L’importance de la localisation dans la valorisation des quartiers marseillaisJournal articlePierre-Henri Bono, Nicolas Gravel et Alain Trannoy, Économie publique/Public economics, Issue 20, 2008

Cet article met en oeuvre une méthode d’identification empirique de la contribution agrégée des aménités d’une zone urbaine qui fait abstraction de ses caractéristiques de localisation.Une fonction hédonique est estimée sur un échantillon de 29 000 ventes de logements en habitat collectif réalisées à Marseille, entre 1995 et 2000. Les variables mesurant les caractéristiques de localisation (proximité du Vieux-Port et de la mer, accessibilité au réseau routier) définies au niveau des 950 sections cadastrales de la ville de Marseille sont capitalisées de façon significative dans le prix du logement. L’intégration de ces variables de localisation dans la fonction hédonique affecte significativement le pouvoir explicatif des quartiers, tel que mesuré par un effet fixe. La carte de la valorisation foncière des différents quartiers de Marseille, nette de leur localisation dessine un nouveau visage de la ville, où seuls les quartiers situés derrière le port de commerce apparaissent nettement dévalorisés.

Policy focus: A robust normative evaluation of India's performance in allocating risks of deathJournal articleNicolas Gravel, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay et Benoît Tarroux, Indian Growth and Development Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 95-111, 2008

Purpose:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust normative evaluation of the recent evolution of Indians' exposures to health-related risks.

Design/methodology/approach:
The paper compares empirically the distributions of individuals' risks of death in India on the basis of new ethically robust criteria in 1995 and 2002. Probabilities of death are assigned individuals as an estimated probit function of several explanatory variables, including the individual's district of residence. The criteria used ranks distributions of individual risks in the same way as would all Von Neumann–Morgenstern (VNM) social planners who respect, in the usual Pareto sense – individuals VNM preferences over individual risks of death. Two criteria are considered in turn. The first criterion assumes that individuals' VNM utilities are increasing in money and value more a unit of money received in the bad state than one received in the good one. The second criterion makes the extra assumption that individuals are risk averse and have VNM utility functions that are more concave in the bad state than in the good one.

Findings:
It is found that there is unanimity among all VNM social planners who respect individual VNM preference for considering that the distribution of risks of death in India was better in 2002 than in 1995. This is at least so if individuals can be assumed to prefer more money to less, to be risk averse, and to be more risk averse in the bad state than in the good one.

Research limitations/implications:
A limitation of the empirical research of the paper is that it concerns only one kind of risk. Future research would apply the tools of this paper to other kinds of risks like risks of crime or risks of unemployment.

Practical implications:
A practical implication of the paper is to illustrate the usefulness of robust dominance methodology to evaluate the outcome of various policies.

Originality/value: The novelty of the paper is to be one of the

A review of “Intermediate Public Economics", Jean Hindriks and Gareth D. MylesJournal articleNicolas Gravel, Économie publique/Public economics, Issue 17, pp. 231-236, 2007

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Appraising diversity with an ordinal notion of similarity: An axiomatic approachJournal articleSebastian Bervoets et Nicolas Gravel, Mathematical Social Sciences, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp. 259-273, 2007

This paper provides an axiomatic characterization of two rules for comparing alternative sets of objects on the basis of the diversity that they offer. The framework considered assumes a finite universe of objects and a priori given ordinal quadernary relation that compares alternative pairs of objects on the basis of their ordinal dissimilarity. Very few properties of this quadernary relation are assumed (beside completeness, transitivity and a very natural form of symmetry). The two rules that we characterize are the maxi max criterion and the lexi-max criterion. The maxi max criterion considers that a set is more diverse than another if and only if the two objects that are the most dissimilar in the former are weakly as dissimilar as the two most dissimilar objects in the later. The lexi-max criterion is defined as usual as the lexicographic extension of the maximax criterion.

Does endogenous formation of jurisdictions lead to wealth-stratification?Journal articleNicolas Gravel et Sylvie Thoron, Journal of Economic Theory, Volume 132, Issue 1, pp. 569-583, 2007

This paper examines the validity of the “folk” intuition that endogenous formation of jurisdictions is likely to create stratification of households according to their wealth. More specifically, we examine a simple model of jurisdiction formation, close in spirit to that of Whestoff ([27]), in which a continuum of unequally wealthy households endowed with the same preferences for one public good and one private good make a location decision in a finite set. Households who choose the same location form a jurisdiction. Within each jurisdiction, the public good is financed by a proportional wealth tax whose rate is decided by a social choice mechanism. The only assumption imposed on the mechanism is to select the most preferred tax rate of one member of the jurisdiction. We define a jurisdiction structure to be stable if it gives to no household any incentive to move away from its jurisdiction. We raise the question of whether stable jurisdiction structures will be stratified in the precise sense that if two households belong to one jurisdiction, then so do all households with intermediate wealth. We provide a necessary and, if households preferences satisfy an additional regularity property, sufficient condition on the households preferences that guarantees that any stable jurisdictions structure involves stratification in this sense. The condition is that the household’s most preferred tax rate must be a strictly monotonic function of its wealth.

Santé, assurance et équité / Health, Insurance and EquityJournal articleNicolas Gravel, Lise Rochaix et Alain Trannoy, Annals of Economics and Statistics, Issue 83-84, pp. 3-18, 2006

La troisième conférence en l'honneur du fondateur de l'Institut d'Économie Publique (IDEP), Louis-André Gérard-Varet (LAGV) s'est tenue à Marseille en Juin 2004. Cette conférence annuelle vise à encourager la production et la diffusion de la recherche en économie publique, en mettant essentiellement l'accent sur les résultats qui contribuent significativement à améliorer la décision publique. La troisième édition de cette conférence, organisée sur le thème «Santé. Assurance et Équité », a rassemblé 60 contributions qui ont porté sur différentes questions relative à l'économie et à la gestion des systèmes de santé, définis au sens large. Cette conférence à été retenue comme Conférence ADRES 2004 et elle a été soutenue financièrement par l'ADRES, le Conseil Régional Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, le Département des Bouches-du-Rhône, le Mairie de Marseille et le ministère français des Affaires étrangères.

Measuring the social value of local public goods: an empirical analysis within Paris metropolitan areaJournal articleNicolas Gravel, Alessandra Michelangeli et Alain Trannoy, Applied Economics, Volume 38, Issue 16, pp. 1945-1961, 2006

A non-linear hedonic model is used to estimate the implicit marginal prices of 17 local public goods in a Paris suburban area on an original data set of some 8200 housing units. The results reveal a robust effect of local public school quality (measured both by the fraction of junior high school students that are at least two years behind grade level and the student/teacher ratio) on house prices. It is observed that housing owners' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time is roughly similar for public transportation than for car transportation. Another noticeable result is the complete capitalization of local taxes at a discount rate of 3.5%. An illustration of the potential usefulness of the results for Cost-Benefit analysis is also provided.