Stated Preferences and Decision-Making: Three Applications to HealthJournal articleDominique Ami, Frédéric Aprahamian et Stéphane Luchini, Revue Économique, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp. 327-333, 2017


Referenda Under OathJournal articleNicolas Jacquemet, Alexander James, Stéphane Luchini et Jason F. Shogren, Environmental & Resource Economics, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp. 479-504, 2017

Herein we explore whether a solemn oath can eliminate hypothetical bias in a voting referenda, a popular elicitation mechanism promoted in non-market valuation exercises for its incentive compatibility properties. First, we reject the null hypothesis that a hypothetical bias does not exist. Second, we observe that people who sign an oath are significantly less likely to vote for the public good in a hypothetical referenda. We complement this evidence with a self-reported measure of honesty which confirms that the oath increases truthfulness in answers. This result opens interesting avenues for improving the elicitation of preferences in the lab and beyond.

L’évasion fiscale est-elle un trait de personnalité ?: Une évaluation empirique des déterminants psychologiques de la « morale fiscale » / Is tax evasion a personality trait? An empirical evaluation of psychological determinants of "tax morale"Journal articleNicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini, Antoine Malézieux et Jason F. Shogren, Revue Économique, Volume 68, Issue 5, pp. 809-828, 2017

FR : Malgré un intérêt croissant pour les déterminants non-monétaires des comportements fiscaux (tax morale), la littérature récente apporte peu d'éléments empiriques sur le lien entre les caractéristiques de personnalité reliées à la moralité et la propension à l'évasion fiscale. Or de telles mesures sont nécessaires pour comprendre les canaux de transmission des dispositifs de lutte contre l'évasion fiscale. Pour pallier cette lacune, le présent article rend compte d'une expérience en laboratoire permettant d'observer à la fois les comportements de déclaration de revenu des participants et des mesures psychologiques issues de la littérature en psychométrie : soumission à la norme, empathie affective et cognitive, et propension à ressentir la honte et la culpabilité. Ces mesures sont combinées à l'aide d'une analyse en composantes principales afin d'en extraire les facteurs indépendants. Nos résultats montrent que la décision de frauder comme son intensité sont fortement liées à l'empathie affective, l'empathie cognitive et la dimension publique de la moralité (mesurée par la soumission à la norme et la propension à la honte). La propension à ressentir la culpabilité, en revanche, est sans effet. Surtout, le pouvoir explicatif global de ces mesures de moralité individuelles est relativement faible. Ce résultat remet en cause l'hypothèse d'une moralité fiscale intrinsèque, et met l'accent sur l'importance du contexte institutionnel pour comprendre les comportements d'évasion.

EN: Despite an increasing interest in the non-monetary determinants of tax behaviors (also known as tax morale), the recent literature offers few empirical elements on the link between moral personality characters and tax evasion propensity. However, such measures are necessary to understand the transmission channels of policies targeted at fighting against tax evasion. To fill this gap, this paper reports a lab experiment allowing to observe participants' behaviors of income declaration and psychological measures from the psychometric literature: norm-submission, affective empathy, cognitive empathy, propensity to feel guilt and shame. These measures are combined through a Principal Component Analysis to extract independent factors. Results show that the decision to evade as well as its intensity are very highly related to affective empathy, cognitive empathy and public dimension of morality (measured by norm submission and propensity to feel shame). The propensity to feel guiltiness is, however, without significant effects. More importantly, the explanatory power of these individual morality measures is rather weak. This result challenges the assumption of an intrinsical tax morale and highlights the importance of the institutional context to understand evasion behaviors.

Engagement et incitations : Comportements économiques sous sermentJournal articleNicolas Jacquemet, Robert-Vincent Joule, Stéphane Luchini et Antoine Malézieux, L'Actualité Économique, Volume 92, Issue 1-2, pp. 315-349, 2016

Sous l’impulsion, notamment, de l’essor de l’économie expérimentale, la littérature récente a mis en évidence un large éventail de situations dans lesquelles les incitations monétaires échouent à orienter les comportements dans le sens désiré. Ce constat conduit à rechercher des mécanismes institutionnels alternatifs, capables de se substituer aux incitations monétaires. Cet article propose une revue des travaux s’inspirant de la psychologie sociale de l’engagement afin de développer des mécanismes non monétaires susceptibles d’affecter les comportements. Ces travaux étudient une procédure d’engagement particulière : un serment à dire la vérité. Cette procédure a été appliquée avec succès (1) au problème du biais hypothétique dans la révélation des préférences pour les biens non marchands, (2) aux défauts de coordination, et (3) à la propension à dire la vérité. Pris ensemble, ces travaux confirment la capacité de mécanismes d’engagement à guider l’élaboration d’institutions non monétaires capables d’orienter efficacement les comportements économiques.

Cognitive ability and the effect of strategic uncertaintyJournal articleNobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini et Adam Zylbersztejn, Theory and Decision, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp. 101-121, 2016

How is one’s cognitive ability related to the way one responds to strategic uncertainty? We address this question by conducting a set of experiments in simple $$2 \times 2$$ 2 × 2 dominance solvable coordination games. Our experiments involve two main treatments: one in which two human subjects interact, and another in which one human subject interacts with a computer program whose behavior is known. By making the behavior of the computer perfectly predictable, the latter treatment eliminates strategic uncertainty. We find that subjects with higher cognitive ability are more sensitive to strategic uncertainty than those with lower cognitive ability.

Fluid Intelligence and Cognitive Reflection in a Strategic Environment: Evidence from Dominance-Solvable GamesJournal articleNobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini et Adam Zylbersztejn, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 7, 2016

Dominance solvability is one of the most straightforward solution concepts in game theory. It is based on two principles: dominance (according to which players always use their dominant strategy) and iterated dominance (according to which players always ...

From representing views to representativeness of views: Illustrating a new (Q2S) approach in the context of health care priority setting in nine European countriesJournal articleHelen Mason, Job van Exel, Rachel Baker, Werner Brouwer, Cam Donaldson, Cam Donaldson, Rachel Baker, Helen Mason, Mark Pennington, Sue Bell, et al., Social Science & Medicine, Volume 166, pp. 205-213, 2016

Governments across Europe are required to make decisions about how best to allocate scarce health care resources. There are legitimate arguments for eliciting societal vales in relation to health care resource allocation given the roles of the general public as payers and potential patients. However, relatively little is known about the views of the general public on general principles which could guide these decisions. In this paper we present five societal viewpoints on principles for health care resources allocation and develop a new approach, Q2S, designed to investigate the extent to which these views are held across a range of European countries. An online survey was developed, based on a previously completed study Q methodology, and delivered between November 2009 and February 2010 across nine countries to 33,515 respondents. The largest proportion of our respondents (44%), were found to most associate themselves with an egalitarian perspective. Differences in views were more strongly associated with countries than with socio-demographic characteristics. These results provide information which could be useful for decision makers in understanding the pluralistic context in which they are making health care resource allocation decisions and how different groups in society may respond to such decisions.

Effort and Redistribution: Is More than Value Judgement Involved?Book chapterStéphane Luchini et Miriam Teschl, Martin Held, G. Kubon-Gilke et Richard Sturn (Eds.), 2015-01, pp. 165-184, Metropolis Verlag, 2015

The log-normal distribution is convenient for modelling the income distribution, and it offers an analytical expression for most inequality indices that depends only on the shape parameter of the associated Lorenz curve. A decomposable inequality index can be implemented in the framework of a finite mixture of log-normal distributions so that overall inequality can be composed into within-subgroup components. Using a Bayesian approach and a Gibbs sampler, a Rao-Blackwellization can improve inference results on decomposable income inequality indices. The very nature of the economic question can provide prior information so as to distinguish between the income groups and construct an asymmetric prior density which can reduce label switching. Data from the UK Family Expenditure Survey (FES) (1979 to 1996) are used in an extended empirical application.

Monetary values for risk of death from air pollution exposure: a context-dependent scenario with a control for intra-familial altruismJournal articleOlivier Chanel et Stéphane Luchini, Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 67-91, 2014

We extend the individual dynamic model of lifetime resource allocation to assess the monetary value given to the increase in survival probabilities for every member of a household induced by improved air quality. We interpret this monetary value as VPF (value of a prevented fatality), which can also be expressed as a flow of discounted VOLY (value of life years) lost, and account for potential altruism towards other household members. We use a French air pollution contingent valuation survey that provides a description of the life-length reduction implied by a change in air pollution exposure. By privatising the public commodity air pollution, we succeed in ruling out any form of altruism (towards others living today and towards future generations) except altruism towards one's family. We estimate a mean VOLY of € 2001 140,000, a 30% premium for VOLY in perfect health w.r.t. average expected health status, and a mean VPF of € 2001 1.45 million for the respondent, all context-specific. In addition, we find an inverted U-shaped relationship between his/her age and VOLY/VPF, and significant benevolence only towards children under 18.

Are choice experiments reliable? Evidence from the labJournal articleStéphane Luchini et Verity Watson, Economics Letters, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp. 9-13, 2014

This study investigates whether a popular stated preference method, the choice experiment (CE), reliably measures individuals’ values for a good. We address this question using an induced value experiment. Our results indicate that CEs fail to elicit payoff maximizing choices. We find little evidence that increasing the salience of the choices or adding monetary incentives increase the proportion of payoff maximizing choices. This questions the increasing use of CE to value non-market goods for policy making.