Publications

La plupart des informations présentées ci-dessous ont été récupérées via RePEc avec l'aimable autorisation de Christian Zimmermann
Unconventional monetary policy reaction functions: evidence from the USJournal articleLuca Agnello, Vitor Castro, Gilles Dufrénot, Fredj Jawadi et Ricardo M. Sousa, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp. pp18, 2020

We specify unconventional monetary policy reaction functions for the Fed using linear and nonlinear econometric frameworks. We find that nonstandard policy measures are largely driven by the dynamics of inflation and the output gap, with the effect being particularly strong during QE rounds. Moreover, we uncover the presence of asymmetry and regime dependence in central bank’s actions since the global financial crisis, especially concerning the response of the term spread and the shadow short rate to the growth rate of central bank reserves. From a policy perspective and given the lack of a systematic response of monetary policy to asset price growth in nonstandard times, our findings seem to corroborate the view that concerns about asset price bubbles, financial sector pro-cyclicality and systemic risk should be part of the macro-prudential policy toolkit.

La démographie historique peut-elle tirer profit des données collaboratives des sites de généalogie ?Journal articleArthur Charpentier et Ewen Gallic, Population, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp. 391-421, 2020

Les sites qui proposent à leurs utilisateurs de reconstituer en ligne leur arbre généalogique fleurissent sur Internet. Cet article analyse le travail de collecte et de saisie effectué par ces utilisateurs et comment il pourrait être utilisé en démographie historique, afin de compléter la connaissance des générations du passé. Pour cela, les résultats obtenus à partir de la base Geneanet sont confrontés à ceux connus de la littérature, et concernent les enregistrements de 2 457 450 individus français ou d'origine française ayant vécu au xixe siècle. Est ainsi mis en évidence un biais important du rapport de masculinité (sous-représentation des femmes). La fécondité est elle aussi fortement sous-estimée. Quant à la mortalité, (par comparaison aux valeurs historiques), ces données sous-estiment la mortalité des hommes jusqu’à 40 ans environ et celle des femmes jusqu’à 25 ans, puis elles la surestiment. Enfin, la richesse des caractéristiques spatiales contenues dans les arbres généalogiques est également exploitée pour produire de nouvelles données sur les migrations internes au xixe siècle.

Threshold regressions for the resource curseJournal articleNicolas Clootens et Djamel Kirat, Environment and Development Economics, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp. 583-610, 2020

This paper analyzes the behavior of cross-country growth rates with respect to resource abundance and dependence. We reject the linear model that is commonly used in growth regressions in favor of a multiple-regime alternative. Using a formal sample-splitting method, we find that countries exhibit different behaviors with respect to natural resources depending on their initial level of development. In high-income countries, natural resources play only a minor role in explaining the differences in national growth rates. On the contrary, in low-income countries, abundance seems to be a blessing but dependence restricts growth.

Évaluation économique de la mortalité liée à la pollution atmosphérique en FranceJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Sylvia Medina et Mathilde Pascal, Journal de gestion et d'Economie de la santé, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp. 77-92, 2020

Cet article propose une discussion méthodologique à partir d’une évaluation économique des impacts sur la mortalité de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines en France continentale. Il prend comme point de départ l’évaluation quantitative d’impact sanitaire (EQIS), réalisée par Santé publique France en 2016, de 5 scénarios de réduction des concentrations par deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité (nombre de décès prématurés évités et nombre total d’années de vie gagnées). Après une justification des valeurs monétaires utilisées – 3 millions € pour la valeur d’évitement d’un décès et 80 000 € pour celle d’une année de vie gagnée – nous les appliquons aux données sanitaires, et obtenons des résultats comparables aux études contemporaines. En particulier, dans un scénario sans pollution anthropique, l’EQIS de 2016 estime à 48 283 les décès prématurés évités, que nous évaluons à 144,85 milliards €2008. Nous questionnons ensuite les méthodes et pratiques, en commençant par identifier les sources de divergence avec la précédente étude française menée en 1998-99, dont l’évaluation était 5 fois moindre en dépit d’émissions particulaires plus élevées. Puis, nous discutons le choix des valeurs monétaires et les conditions d’utilisation de ces résultats dans la décision publique. Au final, nous apportons un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l’exposition des populations à la pollution de l’air ambiant en France.

Differences in work conditions between natives and immigrants: preferences vs. outside employment opportunitiesJournal articleEva Moreno Galbis, European Economic Review, Volume 130, pp. 103586, 2020

Immigrants are disproportionately employed in agriculture and construction, sectors with relatively high injury rates. What pushes immigrants to accept riskier and more strenuous work conditions? We propose a circular model and show that differences in average work conditions borne by natives and immigrants are driven by both preferences and unearned income. Using French data we find that, in line with the model’s predictions, (i) rigid wages are associated with a larger immigrant-native gap in work conditions; (ii) high unearned income individuals benefit on average from better work conditions; (iii) for immigrants and natives with high unearned income, differences in demographic characteristics explain part of the immigrant-native gap in work conditions. In contrast, the gap largely persists among low unearned income people even once we have imposed identical demographic composition among them. This suggests that there must be other factors that influence preferences over work conditions and that are missing in our empirical analysis.

God insures those who pay? Formal insurance and religious offerings in Ghana.Journal articleEmmanuelle Auriol, Julie Lassébie, Amma Panin, Eva Raiber et Paul Seabright, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 135, Issue 4, pp. 1799-1848, 2020

This paper provides experimental support for the hypothesis that insurance can be a motive for religious donations. We randomize enrollment of members of a Pentecostal church in Ghana into a commercial funeral insurance policy. Then church members allocate money between themselves and a set of religious goods in a series of dictator games with significant stakes. Members enrolled in insurance give significantly less money to their own church compared to members that only receive information about the insurance. Enrollment also reduces giving towards other spiritual goods. We set up a model exploring different channels of religiously based insurance.
The implications of the model and the results from the dictator games suggest that adherents perceive the church as a source of insurance and that this insurance is derived from beliefs in an interventionist God. Survey results suggest that material insurance from the church community is also important and we hypothesize that these two insurance channels exist in parallel.

Convergence of GDP per capita in advanced countries over the twentieth centuryJournal articleAntonin Bergeaud, Gilbert Cette et Rémy Lecat, Empirical Economics, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp. 2509-2526, 2020

This study compares GDP per capita levels and growth rates across 17 advanced economies over the period 1890–2013 using an accounting breakdown and runs Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855, 2007) convergence tests. An overall convergence process has been at work among advanced economies, mainly after WWII, driven mostly by capital intensity and then TFP, while trends in hours worked and employment rates are disparate. However, this convergence process came to a halt during technology shocks, during the two world wars and since the 1990s, with the convergence of advanced economies stopping far from the level of US GDP per capita.

Do rising top incomes fuel credit expansion?Journal articleMehdi El Herradi et Aurelien Leroy, Economics Letters, Volume 196, pp. 109539, 2020

This paper provides an empirical assessment of the effect of income inequality on credit dynamics in 12 advanced economies over the period 1948–2015. We use foreign Communist influence as an instrument to identify exogenous variation in inequality and estimate the dynamic effect of a top income shock on credit over GDP. The results suggest that the evolution of top incomes has persistent effects on credit expansion, especially for mortgage and business loans.

Asset bubble and endogenous labor supply: A clarificationJournal articleKathia Bahloul Zekkari et Thomas Seegmuller, Economics Letters, Volume 196, pp. 109537, 2020

This paper analyzes the link between asset bubbles, endogenous labor and capital. First, we explicitly and theoretically derive the conditions to have a crowding-in effect of the bubble, i.e. higher levels of capital and labor. Second, the utility function we consider shows that this result does not require an arbitrarily high elasticity of intertemporal substitution in consumption.

Complementary Monopolies with asymmetric informationJournal articleDidier Laussel et Joana Resende, Economic Theory, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp. 943-981, 2020

We investigate how asymmetric information on final demand affects strategic interaction between a downstream monopolist and a set of upstream monopolists, who independently produce complementary inputs. We study an intrinsic private common agency game in which each supplieriindependently proposes a pricing schedule contract to the assembler, specifying the supplier's payment as a function of the assembler's purchase of inputi. We provide a necessary and sufficient equilibrium condition. A lot of equilibria satisfy this condition but there is a unique Pareto-undominated Nash equilibrium from the suppliers' point of view. In this equilibrium, there are unavoidable efficiency losses due to excessively low sales of the good. However, suppliers may be able to limit these distortions by implicitly coordinating on an equilibrium with a rigid (positive) output in bad demand circumstances.