The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of remittances outflows on inflation for a panel of 14 OPEC countries during the period 1980-2018. Using bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (CLSDV) estimator, empirical results reveal that remittance outflows have no effect on inflation rate. However, trade openness and current account deficits have a positive impact on inflation. Further, oil price appears to not have any effect on inflation in OPEC countries.
We consider a contracting relationship where the agent's effort induces monetary costs, and limits on the agent's resource restrict his capability to exert effort. We show that the principal finds it best to offer a sharing contract while providing the agent with an up-front financial transfer only when the monetary cost is neither too low nor too high. Thus, unlike in the limited liability literature, the principal might find it optimal to fund the agent. Moreover, both incentives and the amount of funding are nonmonotonic functions of the monetary cost. These results suggest that an increase in the interest rate may affect the form of contracts differently, depending on the initial level of the former. Using the analysis, we provide and discuss several predictions and policy implications.
In game theory, the question of convergence of dynamical systems to the set of Nash equilibria has often been tackled. When the game admits a continuum of Nash equilibria, however, a natural and challenging question is whether convergence to the set of Nash equilibria implies convergence to a Nash equilibrium. In this paper we introduce a technique developed in Bhat and Bernstein (2003) as a useful way to answer this question. We illustrate it with the best-response dynamics in the local public good game played on a network, where continua of Nash equilibria often appear.
The standard forms of bootstrap iteration are very computationally demanding. As a result, there have been several attempts to alleviate the computational burden by use of approximations. In this paper, we extend the fast double bootstrap of Davidson and MacKinnon (2007) to higher orders of iteration, and provide algorithms for their implementation. The new methods make computational demands that increase only linearly with the level of iteration, unlike standard procedures, whose demands increase exponentially. In a series of simulation experiments, we show that the fast triple bootstrap improves on both the standard and fast double bootstraps, in the sense that it suffers from less size distortion under the null with no accompanying loss of power.
This paper investigates the impact of informal microfinance groups (self-help groups, or SHGs) on children’s education and work in rural India. In 2002, 24 eligible villages were randomly selected for opening SHGs, and 12 others were randomly selected as a control group. Households were surveyed three times over a 5-year period, allowing for the study of medium-term outcomes. We find a robust and strong increase in secondary school enrollment rates over time, with intention-to-treat estimates of about 40%. This effect stems from a quicker grade progression, leading to lower dropout rates between primary and secondary school. Contrary to usual presumptions, we find no decrease in overall child labor (but a reorientation toward part-time domestic work) and no direct role of credit. By contrast, we show that social interactions within SHGs are very important.
We assess the existence of unfair inequalities in health and death using the normative framework of inequality of opportunities, from birth to middle age in Great Britain.
We use data from the 1958 National Child Development Study, which provides a unique opportunity to observe individual health from birth to the age of 54, including the occurrence of mortality. We measure health status combining self-assessed health and mortality. We compare and statistically test the differences between the cumulative distribution functions of health status at each age according to one childhood circumstance beyond people’s control: the father’s occupation.
At all ages, individuals born to a ‘professional’, ‘senior manager or technician’ father report a better health status and have a lower mortality rate than individuals born to ‘skilled’, ‘partly skilled’ or ‘unskilled’ manual workers and individuals without a father at birth. The gap in the probability to report good health between individuals born into high social backgrounds compared with low, increases from 12 percentage points at age 23 to 26 at age 54. Health gaps are even more marked in health states at the bottom of the health distribution when mortality is combined with self-assessed health.
There is increasing inequality of opportunities in health over the lifespan in Great Britain. The tag of social background intensifies as individuals get older. Finally, there is added analytical value to combining mortality with self-assessed health when measuring health inequalities.
Many cancer survivors experience late effects of cancer treatment and therefore struggle to return to work. Norway provides rehabilitation programs to increase labor force participation for cancer survivors after treatment. However, the extent to which such programs affect labor force participation has not been appropriately assessed. This study aims to investigate i) labor force participation, sick leave and disability rates among cancer survivors up to 10 years after being diagnosed with cancer and identify comorbidities contributing to long-term sick leave or disability pensioning; ii) how type of cancer, treatment modalities, employment sectors and financial- and sociodemographic factors may influence labor force participation; iii) how participation in rehabilitation programs among cancer survivor affect the longterm labor force participation, the number of rehospitalizations and incidence of comorbidities.
Design and methods.
Information from four medical, welfare and occupational registries in Norway will be linked to information from 163,279 cancer cases (15.68 years old) registered in the Norwegian Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2016. The registries provide detailed information on disease characteristics, comorbidities, medical and surgical treatments, occupation, national insurance benefits and demographics over a 10-year period following a diagnosis of cancer.
Expected impact of the study for Public Health.
The study will provide important information on how treatment, rehabilitation and sociodemographic factors influence labor force participation among cancer survivors. Greater understanding of work-related risk factors and the influence of rehabilitation on work-participation may encourage informed decisions among cancer patients, healthcare and work professionals and service planners.
I develop a model of activism and polarization in the context of electoral competition. Two candidates simultaneously announce policy platforms and seek the support of ideologically inclined activists. Activists compete to influence electoral outcomes by expending costly support for their respective candidates. The presence of activists always moderates the platform choice of candidates, compared to the case of no activism. The central finding of the paper is that the relationship between partisanship of activists and polarization is ambiguous. As activists become increasingly partisan, polarization of candidate platforms reduces or widens depending on the costs of activism. I present normative conditions under which the presence of activism and increased partisanship among activists are both welfare-improving for voters. Finally, introducing a public funding option for candidates increases polarization in the political process.
Face à l’irruption de la Covid-19, ont surgi des demandes urgentes de prédire, d’expliquer et de faire comprendre sa diffusion aussi bien géographique que sociale, notamment lorsqu’il s’agissait de soutenir telle ou telle décision politique ou de santé publique (distanciations, confinement, etc.). Plusieurs modèles computationnels – en particulier à agents – ont été bien vite mis en avant. Mais dans quelle mesure sont-ils réellement à même de remplir de telles fonctions, en particulier dans un contexte aussi contraint et variable ? Ce livre propose un ensemble d’analyses précieuses et salutaires pour qui voudra former son jugement à ce sujet. Il s’appuie sur des exemples et des analyses de plusieurs modèles de diffusion de la Covid-19, dont certains ont été utilisés par les pouvoirs publics. Il propose aussi des modèles alternatifs, dont certains inédits. Il s’adresse à un large lectorat. Les analyses techniques y sont effectuées avec beaucoup de pédagogie, sans sacrifier à la précision. Elles peuvent donc intéresser les concepteurs et utilisateurs de modèles, les étudiants, les élus, les associations concernées et tout citoyen soucieux de comprendre ces outils omniprésents. Au-delà du cas de la Covid-19, on y trouve une mise en perspective et une discussion plus générale concernant l’usage des modèles formels en sciences sociales, en particulier dans le cadre de l’aide à la décision publique. Analysant le contexte de la crise que l’on traverse, les auteurs évitent de donner un point de vue personnel, mais au contraire tentent d’aider chacun à avancer dans sa propre réflexion, en mettant en avant les questionnements qui peuvent s’adosser aux modèles présentés.
L’ouvrage comprend deux parties : l’une qui propose une analyse critique de modèles existants, l’autre prenant la forme de trois propositions de modèles qui permettent de percevoir la richesse et la multiplicité des modèles agents de diffusion de maladie – à la fois dans leur conception et leur manipulation. Un glossaire et un intermède sur les « apports des modèles agents en général et pour la Covid-19 en particulier » replacent ces réflexions dans le cadre plus large de la simulation agents appliquée aux sciences sociales.