In the case of ordered categorical data, the concepts of minimum and maximum inequality are not straightforward. In this chapter, the authors consider the Cowell and Flachaire (2017) indices of inequality. The authors show that the minimum and maximum inequality depend on preliminary choices made before using these indices, on status and the sensitivity parameter. Specifically, maximum inequality can be given by the distribution which is the most concentrated in the top or bottom category, or by the uniform distribution.
The growth incidence curve of Ravallion and Chen (2003) is based on the quantile function. Its distribution-free estimator behaves erratically with usual sample sizes leading to problems in the tails. The authors propose a series of parametric models in a Bayesian framework. A first solution consists in modeling the underlying income distribution using simple densities for which the quantile function has a closed analytical form. This solution is extended by considering a mixture model for the underlying income distribution. However, in this case, the quantile function is semi-explicit and has to be evaluated numerically. The last solution consists in adjusting directly a functional form for the Lorenz curve and deriving its first-order derivative to find the corresponding quantile function. The authors compare these models by Monte Carlo simulations and using UK data from the Family Expenditure Survey. The authors devote a particular attention to the analysis of subgroups.
This paper proposes new estimates of potential growth for 5 major industrialized countries. We use a state-space approach to obtain joint estimates of potential growth and the natural interest rates. The model is a reduced-form of a partial equilibrium model with a Phillips curve and an IS curve. In addition to the usual determinants of prices and business fluctuations, we consider financial variables as a determinant of the business cycle.
Comment mesurer le plus finement possible l'accélération ou la décélération d'une épidémie ?
La crise de la COVID-19 a souligné, parfois avec cruauté, certaines insuffisances du système de santé français. Elle a mis en lumière l’absence de stratégie globale de gestion du risque et la difficulté de prendre des décisions adaptées à un niveau infranational. Mais elle a aussi été porteur d’espoir en révélant une véritable capacité d’adaptation des professionnels de santé à l’hôpital et en ville et des industriels pharmaceutiques, accélérant les processus d’innovation thérapeutique et de coordination des acteurs.
Il semble, aujourd’hui plus que jamais, nécessaire qu’un ouvrage en économie de la santé puisse éclairer les débats qui traversent le système de santé. De nombreux défis sont à relever : le financement et la régulation des dépenses de santé, le manque de coordination entre médecine de ville et hôpital ; le déficit de prévention et l’invisibilité de la santé publique ; les inégalités sociales de santé et d’accès aux soins. Ces défis interrogent chacun des acteurs du système de santé (patients, offreurs de soins, industriels…).
A l’occasion de ses 30 ans, le Collège des Economistes de la santé propose un ouvrage collectif réunissant 30 contributeurs, et ambitionne d’analyser et de disséquer les principaux défis auxquels le système de santé fait face.
This paper estimates trade barriers in government procurement, a market that accounts for 12% of world GDP. Using data from inter-country input-output tables in a gravity model, we find that home bias in government procurement is significantly higher than in trade between firms. However, this difference has been shrinking over time. Results also show that trade agreements with provisions on government procurement increase cross-border flows of services, whereas the effect on goods is small and not different from that in private markets. Provisions containing transparency and procedural requirements drive the liberalizing effect of trade agreements.
This chapter discusses whether the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries are prone to be cursed or blessed by their natural resources endowments. It thus reviews the literature on the resource curse theory. The existence of a resource curse is discussed and arguments against advocates of the resource curse are presented. Then, the resource curse transmission channels are presented. Finally, we present to what extent MENA countries are affected by the curse, drawing on existing literature as well as empirical data. The (scarce) literature shows that a resource curse may be underway in MENA economies. Broadly speaking, this literature often argues that the curse could be turned into a blessing through institutional improvements. The empirical data presented in this chapter tend to confirm this view. They show that the economic development of resource-rich MENAs has not been translated into human progress and has been largely non-inclusive. These results are stronger when the resource rent per capita is larger. Finally, the average institutional quality in resources-rich MENA countries appears to be lower than the average institutional quality in resources-poor MENA economies, suggesting some room for an institutional resource curse.
The Pareto model is very popular in risk management, since simple analytical formulas can be derived for financial downside risk measures (value-at-risk, expected shortfall) or reinsurance premiums and related quantities (large claim index, return period). Nevertheless, in practice, distributions are (strictly) Pareto only in the tails, above (possible very) large threshold. Therefore, it could be interesting to take into account second-order behavior to provide a better fit. In this article, we present how to go from a strict Pareto model to Pareto-type distributions. We discuss inference, derive formulas for various measures and indices, and finally provide applications on insurance losses and financial risks.