Publications

La plupart des informations présentées ci-dessous ont été récupérées via RePEc avec l'aimable autorisation de Christian Zimmermann
Des impacts sanitaires du changement climatique déjà bien visibles : l’exemple des canicules:Journal articleLucie Adélaïde, Olivier Chanel et Mathilde Pascal, Annales des Mines - Responsabilité et environnement, Volume N° 106, Issue 2, pp. 42-47, 2022
How does the exchange-rate regime affect dual-listed share price parity? Evidence from China’s A- and H-share marketsJournal articleJoseph K. W. Fung, Eric Girardin et Jian Hua, Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 129, pp. 102738, 2022

This paper examines the impact of exchange-rate regime change on the price disparity of China’s dual-listed stocks. We use four years of synchronous intraday data of 26 pairs of dual-listed RMB-denominated A-shares and their corresponding HKD-denominated H-shares. The sample period covers the 2005 and 2008 changes in the exchange rate regime. During that time, the Chinese authorities strictly prohibited short selling of stocks and tightly regulated capital flows. In contrast to the existing general findings, we find that the law of one price can be strengthened for dual-listed stocks (DLSs) in segmented capital markets under a flexible exchange rate regime; the disparity between the DLSs is reduced under the managed float compared to the pegged regime. Moreover, we find that the magnitude of the H-share discount is positively related to the expected RMB appreciation under managed float; however, under the pegged regime the relationship is negative.

Quelles conditions d'accès à l'emploi pour les jeunes mères isolées ?Book chapterStephen Bazen, Xavier Joutard et Hélène Périvier, In: Chemins vers l’emploi et la vie adulte : l’inégalité des possibles, Thomas Couppié, Arnaud Dupray, Céline Gasquet et Elsa Personnaz (Eds.), 2022-12, Number 4, pp. 97-105, CEREQ - Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications, 2022

Si la présence d’un enfant pénalise l’accès à l’emploi des jeunes mères, la monoparentalité n’aggrave pas leur capacité d’accès à un premier emploi. En revanche, être mère isolée retarde l’accès au CDI à temps complet des femmes les moins diplômées, et donc leur insertion durable, à l’inverse des plus diplômées.

Business Training with a Better-Informed Lender: Theory and Evidence from Microcredit in FranceJournal articleRenaud Bourlès, Anastasia Cozarenco, Dominique Henriet et Xavier Joutard, Annals of Economics and Statistics, Issue 148, pp. 65-108, 2022

In the microfinance sector, experienced lenders enjoy an information advantage over first-time entrepreneurs. Our study proposes an analysis of the business training provided on a par with microloans and its potential effect on borrowers’behavior. First, we present a simple theoretical mechanism showing that an information advantage concerning borrower risk can lead to a non-monotonic relationship between risk and business training provision. Second, using a hand-collected data set of loan applications to a French MFI, we empirically examine the relationship between business training provision and borrower risk, controlling for selection bias and endogeneity. The collected evidence supports the existence of a non-monotonic relationship and shows that business training significantly increases the survival time of loans. Our results are robust to alternative econometric models.

When Is Product Personalization Profit-Enhancing? A Behavior-Based Discrimination ModelJournal articleDidier Laussel et Joana Resende, Management Science, Volume 68, Issue 12, pp. 8872-8888, 2022

This paper investigates duopoly competition when horizontally differentiated firms are able to make personalized product-price offers to returning customers, within a behavior-based discrimination model. In the second period, firms can profile old customers according to their preferences, selling them targeted products at personalized prices. Product-price personalization (PP) allows firms to retain all old customers, eliminating second-period customer poaching. The overall profit effects of PP are shown to be ambiguous. In the second period, PP improves the matching between customers’ preferences and firms’ offers, but firms do not make any revenues in the rival’s turf. In the Bertrand outcome, second-period profits only increase for both firms if the size of their old turfs are not too different or initial products are not too differentiated. However, the additional second-period profits may be offset by lower first-period profits. PP is likely to increase firms’ overall discounted profits when consumers’ (firms’) discount factor is low (high) and firms’ initial products are exogenous and sufficiently different. When the location of initial products is endogenous, profits are hurt because of an additional location (strategic) effect aggravating head-to-head competition in the first period. Likewise, when a fraction of active consumers conceals their identity, PP increases second-period profits at the cost of aggressive first-period price competition. Finally, we show that the room for profitable PP enlarges considerably if firms rely on PP as an effective device to sustain tacit collusive outcomes, with firms credibly threatening to respond to first-period price deviations with second-period aggressive relocations of their standard products.

This paper was accepted by Matthew Shum, marketing.

Decision-Making Tools for Informed Decisions by Health Policymakers and Managers. Ch. 14Book chapterMeesha Iqbal, Hiba Sameen, Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Awad Mataria et Sameen Siddiq, In: Making Health Systems Work in Low and Middle Income Countries: Textbook for Public Health Practitioners, S. Siddiq, A. Mataria, K. D. Rouleau et M. Iqbal (Eds.), 2022-12, pp. 185-206, Cambridge University Press, 2022

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General practitioners' attitude towards cooperation with other health professionals in managing patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy: A cross-sectional studyJournal articleHélène Carrier, Anna Zaytseva, Aurélie Bocquier, Patrick Villani, Martin Fortin et Pierre Verger, European Journal of General Practice, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp. 109-117, 2022

Background:
Cooperation between general practitioners (GPs) and other healthcare professionals appears to help reduce the risk of polypharmacy-related adverse events in patients with multimorbidity.
Objectives:
To investigate GPs profiles according to their opinions and attitudes about interprofessional cooperation and to study the association between these profiles and GPs’ characteristics.
Methods:
Between May and July 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a panel of French GPs about their management of patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy, focussing on their opinions on the roles of healthcare professionals and interprofessional cooperation. We used agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to identify GPs profiles, then multivariable logistic regression models to study their associations with the characteristics of these doctors.
Results:
1183 GPs responded to the questionnaire. We identified four profiles of GPs according to their declared attitudes towards cooperation: GPs in the ‘very favourable’ profile (14%) were willing to cooperate with various health professionals, including the delegation of some prescribing tasks to pharmacists; GPs in the ‘moderately favourable’ profile (47%) had favourable views on the roles of health professionals, with the exception for this specific delegation of the task; GPs from the ‘selectively favourable’ profile (27%) tended to work only with doctors; GPs from the ‘non-cooperative’ profile (12%) did not seem to be interested in cooperation. Some profiles were associated with GPs’ ages or participation in continuing medical education.
Conclusion:
Our study highlights disparities between GPs regarding cooperation with other professionals caring for their patients and suggests ways to improve cooperation.

The environmental justice implications of the Paris low emission zone: a health and economic impact assessmentJournal articleErika Moreno, Lara Schwartz, Sabine Host, Olivier Chanel et Tarik Benmarhnia, Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Volume 15, Issue 12, pp. 2171-2184, 2022

Background:
Reducing the mortality burden associated with urban air pollution constitutes a public health priority, and evidence of unequal exposure and susceptibility across population subgroups is growing. Many European countries have implemented low emission zones (LEZs) in densely populated city centers. Although LEZs decrease air pollution exposure and health impacts, evidence is lacking on their impact across neighborhoods and socio-economic groups.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the most equitable approach to implementing the second phase of the LEZ in Paris, France. We also present a literature review of the studies evaluating the benefits associated with LEZs in Europe.
Methods:
A health impact assessment (HIA) was conducted to quantify changes in air pollution exposure and expected health benefits by socioeconomic group and neighborhood related to four hypothetical scenarios for the second phase of the LEZ based on French Deprivation Index scores. The study focused on NO2 and PM2.5 as air pollutants and evaluated the impact of the LEZ on the inequitable burden of childhood asthma and all-cause premature adult mortality. We also conducted an economic evaluation associated with the LEZ benefits on prevented deaths and asthma cases.
Results:
The scenario with the largest LEZ perimeter and the most stringent vehicle standards prevented the highest number of cases and produced the most equitable distribution of health benefits, especially childhood asthma. It is expected that 810 deaths and 3200 cases of asthma could be prevented from the LEZ extension in this scenario. These results were distributed heterogeneously across three socioeconomic (SES) groups, most noticeably with asthma cases as 230, 180, and 210 cases were avoided per 100,000 inhabitants in high, medium, and low SES groups, respectively. We found substantial economic benefits associated with LEZ, with estimates ranging from €0.76 billion to €2.36 billion for prevented deaths. The benefits associated with asthma reduction ranged from €2.3 million to €8.3 million.
Discussion:
Conducting HIAs with a focus on equity will further inform policy makers of the impact of LEZ models on air pollution, health, and environmental justice. Developing these systematic methods and applying them to future LEZs and other air pollution policies will increase their effectiveness to reduce the burden of ambient air pollution on society and the environment.

Is a clash coming when trade and climate meet at the border? The impact of the EU's carbon border adjustment on China's belt and road initiativeJournal articleJamal Khan, Yuan Li et Eric Girardin, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Volume 63, pp. 112-124, 2022

We empirically examine the effectiveness of EU Border carbon adjustment (BCA) in the context of BRI, by developing a hypothetical BCA scheme based on a multi-regional Input-Output model. We use various evaluation criteria such as sectoral coverage, economic condition of trade partners, compliance with trade regulations, and selection of Best Available Technology (BAT). Our analysis shows that the EU-BCA scheme covers 44% of the global traded emissions, of which 84% are generated in the BRI regions. However, the BAT principle and trade provisions reduce the coverage of BCA emissions for BRI regions, while assumptions about the carbon intensity of imports result in a further reduction. Our findings both cast serious doubt on BCA's ability to drive industrial decarbonisation and alleviate domestic producers' competitiveness concerns, and support the argument that EU-BCA may level the playing field for the EU's domestic market but may not address competitiveness concerns in other (non-EU) markets.

Promoting socially desirable behaviors through persuasion and commitment: Experimental evidenceJournal articleCécile Bazart, Mathieu Lefebvre et Julie Rosaz, Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Volume 101, pp. 101931, 2022

Through a series of experiments, this paper tests the relative efficiency of persuasion and commitment schemes to increase and sustain contribution levels in a Voluntary Contribution Game. The design allows us to compare a baseline consisting of a repeated public good game to four treatments of the same game in which we successively introduce a persuasion message, commitment devices, and communication between subjects. Our results suggest that these non-monetary procedures significantly increase cooperation and reduce the decay of contributions across periods.