Chanel

Publications

Does charity begin at home for air pollution reductions? Unraveling intra familial altruismJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Stéphane Luchini et Jason F. Shogren, Journal of Choice Modelling, Volume 38, pp. 100268, 2021

We propose a structural econometric model that incorporates altruism towards other household members into the willingness to pay for a public good. The model distinguishes preferences for public good improvements for oneself from preferences for improvements for other household members. We test for three different types of altruism - ‘pure self-interest’, ‘pure altruism’ and ‘public-good-focused non-pure altruism’. Using French contingent valuation data regarding air quality improvements, we find positive and significant degrees of concern for children under the age of 18, which are explained by determinants related to health and subjective air quality assessment. All other forms of pure or air-quality-focused altruism within the family are insignificant, including for children over 18, siblings, spouses, and parents. This result suggests that benefit estimates that do not consider altruism could undervalue improvements in air quality in France.

Évaluation monétaire des effets sanitaires des canicules en France métropolitaine entre 2015 et 2020Journal articleLucie Adélaïde, Olivier Chanel et Mathilde Pascal, Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire, Issue 12, pp. 215-223, 2021

Bien que les canicules soient les événements climatiques extrêmes les plus importants en termes de mortalité, leurs impacts sont rarement considérés sous un angle économique. Cette méconnaissance, couplée à une perception du risque qui demeure faible, s’avère un frein à l’action en matière d’adaptation. Nous proposons une évaluation monétaire des impacts sanitaires des canicules en France métropolitaine entre 2015 et 2020.

Méthode –
Les indicateurs sanitaires suivis dans le cadre du Plan national canicule ont été utilisés pour appréhender les coûts des passages aux urgences et consultations SOS Médecins pour une sélection de causes liées à la chaleur. La mortalité en excès et la perte d’espérance de vie ont également été valorisées économiquement, ainsi que la perte de bien-être due aux restrictions d’activité. Une approche fondée sur le coût total de la maladie (coût direct, indirects et intangibles) et le consentement à payer a été utilisée.

Résultats –
Entre 2015 et 2020, les impacts sanitaires étudiés représentent au total, selon la méthode choisie, autour de 22 ou de 37 milliards €. La mortalité en excès est majoritaire (16 milliards € lorsqu’exprimée en années de vie perdues, ou 30 milliards € lorsqu’exprimée à partir des décès en excès) et la restriction d’activité est évaluée à environ 6 milliards €.

Conclusions –
Cette étude permet de mieux objectiver l’impact économique de ces événements climatiques extrêmes. Dans un contexte où les évolutions climatiques annoncent un accroissement des températures et des phénomènes de vagues de chaleur, pouvant conduire à une aggravation des impacts, ces résultats obtenus soulignent encore l’importance et l’urgence de mesures d’action permettant de renforcer l’adaptation aux canicules.

Évaluation économique de la mortalité liée à la pollution atmosphérique en FranceJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Sylvia Medina et Mathilde Pascal, Journal de gestion et d'Economie de la santé, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp. 77-92, 2020

Cet article propose une discussion méthodologique à partir d’une évaluation économique des impacts sur la mortalité de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines en France continentale. Il prend comme point de départ l’évaluation quantitative d’impact sanitaire (EQIS), réalisée par Santé publique France en 2016, de 5 scénarios de réduction des concentrations par deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité (nombre de décès prématurés évités et nombre total d’années de vie gagnées). Après une justification des valeurs monétaires utilisées – 3 millions € pour la valeur d’évitement d’un décès et 80 000 € pour celle d’une année de vie gagnée – nous les appliquons aux données sanitaires, et obtenons des résultats comparables aux études contemporaines. En particulier, dans un scénario sans pollution anthropique, l’EQIS de 2016 estime à 48 283 les décès prématurés évités, que nous évaluons à 144,85 milliards €2008. Nous questionnons ensuite les méthodes et pratiques, en commençant par identifier les sources de divergence avec la précédente étude française menée en 1998-99, dont l’évaluation était 5 fois moindre en dépit d’émissions particulaires plus élevées. Puis, nous discutons le choix des valeurs monétaires et les conditions d’utilisation de ces résultats dans la décision publique. Au final, nous apportons un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l’exposition des populations à la pollution de l’air ambiant en France.

Les analyses coûts-bénéfices en santé environnement prennent-elles correctement en compte les préférences de la population ?Journal articleVictor Champonnois et Olivier Chanel, Environnement, Risques & Santé, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp. 373-378, 2018

Les analyses coûts-bénéfices constituent un moyen pour le décideur public comme privé de rationaliser ses choix. Le processus semble transparent et le traitement des préférences égalitaire, puisque les préférences de chaque individu sont prises en compte de façon similaire lors de l’agrégation. Toutefois, en présence de composantes non marchandes évaluées sur la base des préférences de la population, les individus sont limités dans l’expression de leurs préférences, à la fois par leur revenu et par leur besoin de subsistance. Nous étudions les conséquences de ces contraintes sur la révélation des préférences et sur l’évaluation monétaire des biens non marchands. Nous trouvons qu’elles amènent à favoriser implicitement les préférences des individus à revenu élevé. Se pose alors la question de la correction des évaluations monétaires lors du traitement des préférences individuelles.

Reducing the anchoring bias in multiple question CV surveysJournal articleVictor Champonnois, Olivier Chanel et Khaled Makhloufi, Journal of Choice Modelling, Volume 28, Issue C, pp. 1-9, 2018

The elicitation format is a crucial aspect of Contingent Valuation (CV) surveys and can impact their reliability. This paper contributes to the extensive debate on WTP (Willingness To Pay) elicitation formats by assessing whether the Circular Payment Card (CPC) can reduce anchoring on respondents' previous answers under multiple elicitation questions. This new format uses a visual pie-chart representation without start or end points: respondents spin the circular card in any direction until they find the section that best matches their WTP. We used a CV survey based on two ways of reducing risks associated with flooding, each randomly presented first to half of the respondents, to test the absolute performance of CPC. We presented a second survey on two social insurance schemes for subjects currently uninsured to respondents randomly split into three subgroups. Each group's WTP was elicited using one of three formats: Open-Ended (OE), standard Payment Card (PC) and the new CPC. The two insurance schemes were always proposed in the same order, and we assessed the relative performance of CPC by comparing anchoring across respondents. Our results provide evidence that CPC is likely to reduce anchoring in multiple elicitation questions and that respondents may rely on different heuristic decisions when giving WTP in the OE and in the two PC formats.

When do social cues and scientific information affect stated preferences? Insights from an experiment on air pollutionJournal articleDominique Ami, Frédéric Aprahamian, Olivier Chanel et Stéphane Luchini, Journal of Choice Modelling, Volume 29, Issue C, pp. 33-46, 2018

Stated preference surveys are usually carried out in one session, without any follow-up interview after respondents have had the opportunity to experience the public goods or policies they were asked to value. Consequently, a stated preference survey needs to be designed so as to provide respondents with all the relevant information, and to help them process this information so they can perform the valuation exercise properly. In this paper, we study experimentally an elicitation procedure in which respondents are provided with a sequence of different types of information (social cues and objective information) that allows them to sequentially revise their willingness-to-pay (WTP) values. Our experiment was carried out in large groups using an electronic voting system which allows us to construct social cues in real time. To analyse the data, we developed an anchoring-type structural model that allows us to estimate the direct effect (at the current round) and the indirect effect (on subsequent rounds) of information. Our results shed new light on the interacted effect of social cues and objective information: social cues have little or no direct effect on WTP values but they have a strong indirect effect on how respondents process scientific information. Social cues have the most noticeable effect on respondents who initially report a WTP below the group average but only after receiving additional objective information about the valuation task. We suggest that the construction and the provision of social cues should be added to the list of tools and controls for stated preference methods.

Pollution de l'airReportOlivier Chanel, pp. 54, 2017

Une évaluation économique de l'exposition chronique aux particules fines sur la mortalité en France.

Evaluation économique des impacts de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines sur la mortalité en France continentaleReportOlivier Chanel, pp. 54, 2017

Ce document évalue monétairement les impacts de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines sur la mortalité calculés par Santé publique France (Pascal et al., 2016a, 2016b) en France continentale. Il reprend les 5 scénarios de réduction retenus et les deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité : en nombre de décès prématurés évités et en nombre total d’années de vie gagnées. Les calculs sont effectués pour la France continentale entière, et pour chacune des 12 nouvelles régions. Ils apportent un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l’exposition des populations à la pollution de l’air ambiant en France. Une synthèse est disponible dans Chanel (2017).

Take the Money and Run? Hypothetical Fee Variations and French GPs’ Labour SupplyJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Alain Paraponaris, Christel Protière et Bruno Ventelou, Revue Économique, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp. 357-377, 2017

This paper analyses how French general practitioners? (GPs) labour supply would respond to changes in their fee per consultation, seeking to determine whether there is a backward-bending curve.?Because French GPs? fees only evolve very slowly and are generally fixed by the National Health Insurance Fund, fee variability is not sufficient to observe changes in labour supply.?Therefore, we designed a contingent valuation survey randomly presenting GPs with three hypothetical fee increases.?Empirical evidence from 1,400 GPs supports the hypothesis of a negative slope in their labour supply curve.?This suggests that increasing fees is not an effective policy to increase the supply of medical services. JEL Codes: C21, I12, J22, J4.

How Can Contingent Valuation Inform the Bioethics Debate? Evidence from a Survey on Hereditary Cancers in FranceJournal articleChristel Protière, Olivier Chanel, Emmanuelle Mouret-Fourme, Claire Julian-Reynier, Catherine Nogues et Isabelle Coupier, Revue Économique, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp. 379-404, 2017

BRCA1/2 carriers have a higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer at a younger age. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND) are two of the few options available to avoid transmitting the mutation. To inform the bioethics debate about authorization, a contingent valuation survey elicited preferences regarding access to PGD and PND from a sample of 460 unaffected by cancer BRCA1/2 carriers (GENEPSO cohort). We find that the respondents can be classified into three groups: one opposed to PGD/PND (28.3%), one strongly in favour of PGD/PND (45.8%), and one in an intermediate position (25.9%). We look for the determinants of these preferences, especially of the willingness to pay for PGD/PND. Overall, we find that BRCA1/2 carriers support access to PGD/PND, which has implications for recommendations to decision-makers.

Estimating willingness to pay for public health insurance while accounting for protest responses: A further step towards universal health coverage in Tunisia?Journal articleMohammad Abu-Zaineh, Olivier Chanel et Khaled Makhloufi, The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Volume n/a, Issue n/a, Forthcoming

Introduction:
Developing countries face major challenges in implementing universal health coverage (UHC): a widespread informal sector, general discontent with rising economic insecurity and inequality and the rollback of state and public welfare. Under such conditions, estimating the demand for a health insurance scheme (HIS) on voluntary basis can be of interest to accelerate the progress of UHC-oriented reforms. However, a major challenge that needs to be addressed in such context is related to protest attitudes that may reflect, inter alia, a null valuation of the expected utility or unexpressed demand.
Methods:
We propose to tackle this by applying a contingent valuation survey to a non-healthcare-covered Tunisian sample vis-à-vis joining and paying for a formal HIS. Our design pays particular attention to identifying the nature of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) values obtained, distinguishing genuine null values from protest values. To correct for potential selection issues arising from protest answers, we estimate an ordered-Probit-selection model and compare it with the standard Tobit and Heckman sample selection models.
Results:
Our results support the presence of self-selection and, by predicting protesters' WTP, allow the “true” sample mean WTP to be computed. This appears to be about 14% higher than the elicited mean WTP.
Conclusion:
The WTP of the poorest non-covered respondents represents about one and a half times the current contributions of the poorest formal sector enrolees, suggesting that voluntary participation in the formal HIS is feasible.

Does Affective Forecasting Error Induce Changes in Preferences? Lessons from Danish Soldiers Anticipating Combat in AfghanistanJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen et Jean-Christophe Vergnaud, Defence and Peace Economics, pp. 1-21, Forthcoming

This paper investigates how affective forecasting errors (A.F.E.s), the difference between anticipated emotion and the emotion actually experienced, may induce changes in preferences on time, risk and occupation after combat. Building on psychological theories incorporating the role of emotion in decision-making, we designed a before-and-after-mission survey for Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2011. Our hypothesis of an effect from A.F.E.s is tested by controlling for other mechanisms that may also change preferences: immediate emotion, trauma effect – proxied by post-traumatic stress disorder (P.T.S.D.) – and changes in wealth and risk perception. At the aggregate level, results show stable preferences before and after mission. We find positive A.F.E.s for all three emotions studied (fear, anxiety and excitement), with anticipated emotions stronger than those actually experienced. We provide evidence that positive A.F.E.s regarding fear significantly increase risk tolerance and impatience, while positive A.F.E.s regarding excitement strengthen the will to stay in the military. Trauma has no impact on these preferences.

Accounting for subsistence needs in non-market valuation: a simple proposalJournal articleVictor Champonnois et Olivier Chanel, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, pp. 1-24, Forthcoming

Revealed and stated preference techniques are widely used to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for non-market goods as input to public and private decision-making. However, individuals first have to satisfy subsistence needs through market good consumption, which affects their ability to pay. We provide a methodological framework and derive a simple ex post adjustment factor to account for this effect. We quantify its impacts on the WTP for non-market goods and the ranking of projects theoretically, numerically and empirically. This confirms that non-adjusted WTP tends to be plutocratic: the views of the richest – whatever they are – are more likely to impact decision-making, potentially leading to ranking reversal between projects. We also suggest that the subsistence needs-based adjustment factor we propose has a role to play in value transfer procedures. The overall goal is a better representation of the entire population’s preferences with regard to non-market goods.

Health effects from heat waves in France: an economic evaluationJournal articleLucie Adélaïde, Olivier Chanel et Mathilde Pascal, The European Journal of Health Economics, Forthcoming

Background :
Scarcity of data on the health impacts and associated economic costs of heat waves may limit the will to invest in adaptation measures. We assessed the economic impact associated with mortality, morbidity, and loss of well-being during heat waves in France between 2015 and 2019.

Methods :
Health indicators monitored by the French national heat wave plan were used to estimate excess visits to emergency rooms and outpatient clinics and hospitalizations for heat-related causes. Total excess mortality and years of life loss were considered, as well as the size of the population that experienced restricted activity. A cost-of-illness and willingness-to-pay approach was used to account for associated costs.

Results :
Between 2015 and 2019, the economic impact of selected health effects of heat waves amounts to €25.5 billion, mainly in mortality (€23.2 billion), minor restricted activity days (€2.3 billion), and morbidity (€0.031 billion).

Conclusion :
The results highlight a significant economic burden on the French health system and the population. A better understanding of the economic impacts of climate change on health is required to alert decision-makers to the urgency of mitigation and to support concrete adaptation actions.