AMU - AMSE
5-9 Boulevard Maurice Bourdet, CS 50498
13205 Marseille Cedex 1
The approach of equality of opportunity is becoming ubiquitous in the social justice literature. Marc Fleurbaey ,  and John Roemer ,  have played a major role in transmitting ideas put forth by philosophers and in transforming these ideas in models of social justice that can be absorbed by economists. The ideas of compensation and responsibility are defined in a different way by these two authors and we show that hybrid concepts are meaningful. More specifically, we propose a new principle of natural reward, ?reward on average,? which is compatible with the principle of compensation ex post in a quite general setting. Furthermore, we show how to introduce the idea of a social determinism in private choices in Fleurbaey?s approach.
Outre les difficultés conjoncturelles liées au faible cours du nickel, l’économie néo‐calédonienne souffre de faibles gains de productivité, d’une compétitivité insuffisante et de fortes inégalités de revenus. Les auteurs de la note, Catherine Ris, Alain Trannoy et Étienne Wasmer, montrent comment s’attaquer à ces trois handicaps et définir une stratégie de croissance de long terme. La transformation progressive des ressources naturelles en actif pérenne grâce à un fonds souverain, des mesures favorisant la concurrence et l’ouverture internationale, un investissement substantiel dans la formation et une politique fiscale plus redistributive sont les principales pistes proposées.
Faisons tout de suite part d'une remarque factuelle que le sujet des droits d'enregistrement n'éveille aucune curiosité chez les économistes, pour la bonne raison qu'aucune rubrique portant ce nom n'existe dans les traités d'économie dédiés à la fiscalité. Pour autant, il est possible d'analyser les droits d'enregistrement à la lumière des concepts de la taxation optimale et c'est ce que nous allons tenter de faire dans cet article, en évitant autant que possible le jargon économique, pour essayer (...)
This chapter reviews the literature about inequality and welfare with a particular focus on whether Europe has a special sensitivity to these matters or specific outcomes. It is argued that both statements are likely to be true, which raises the possibility of a causal link. Europe has relatively good results in terms of inequality and welfare in comparison with other continents and more specifically America, because these issues matter for European people. Still, research needs to be fostered in at least 5 areas that are detailed at the end of this review. Specific attention is devoted to the contribution of other social sciences and natural sciences (cognitive science) to the development of our knowledge for the field of inequality and welfare.
Equality of opportunity is usually defined as a situation where the effect of circumstances on outcome is nullified (compensation principle) and effort is rewarded (reward principle). We propose a new version of the reward principle based on the idea that effort deserves reward for it is costly. We show that luck can be introduced in two ways in the definition of these principles, depending on whether the correlation between luck and circumstances should be nullified and whether the correlation between luck and effort should be rewarded. In this regard, the timing of luck with respect to effort decisions is crucial, as is exemplified by moral hazard where effort choice influences the lottery of future uncertain events.
The paper investigates the link between the over-exposure of African immigrants to unemployment in France and their under-representation in jobs in contact with customers. We build a two-sector matching model with ethnic sectorspecifc preferences, economy-wide employer discrimination, and customer discrimination in jobs in contact with customers. The outcomes of the model allow us to build a test of ethnic discrimination in general and customer discrimination in particular. We run the test on French individual data in a cross-section of local labor markets (Employment Areas). Our results show that there is both ethnic and customer discrimination in the French labor market.
Cet article décrit deux réformes, la modulation des allocations familiales en fonction du revenu et le nouvel abaissement du plafonnement du quotient familial. Ces réformes annoncent la fin du principe d’égal sacrifice, qui sous-tendait le mécanisme de quotient familial, et son quasi-remplacement par un principe forfaitaire. Nous étudions l’impact financier sur les ménages concernés et suggérons d’assumer les choix faits en simplifiant le système actuel, complexe, par une aide forfaitaire de type crédit d’impôt.
[eng] This article describes two recent reforms, the means-testing, of family benefits and further reduction of the ceiling of the “quotient familial”. These reforms announce the end of the principle of equal sacrifice, which underpinned the “quotient familial” mechanism in French taxation, and its quasi-replacement by a lump-sum principle. We evaluate the financial impact of the reforms on affected households and suggest to consistently assume the choices made by simplifying the current system, too complex, by a simple universal transfer, such as a tax credit.
No abstract is available for this item.
The purpose of this article is to offer a non-technical selective survey for a general audience about how economists have progressively handled the concept of equality of opportunity. The key idea is that equality of opportunity not only deals with ex-ante inequalities, something that the name already suggests, but also with ex-post inequalities which makes the analysis quite different from that of the capability approach. The article is structured in three parts. First, we review the main theoretical issues about inequality of opportunity. We then follow by looking at the measurement issues and by presenting some empirical results. We finally provide an overview about the challenges faced by policies aiming at enhancing equality of opportunity.
During the last third of the twentieth century, political philosophers actively debated about the content of distributive justice; the ruling ethical view of utilitarianism was challenged by various versions of equality of opportunities. Economists formulated several ways of modeling these ideas, focusing upon how individuals are placed with respect to opportunities for achieving various outcomes, and what compensation is due to individuals with truncated opportunities. After presenting a review of the main philosophical ideas (section 2), we turn to economic models (sections 3 and 4). We propose a reformulation of the definition of economic development, replacing the utilitarian measure of GDP per capita with a measure of the degree to which opportunities for income acquisition in a nation have been equalized. Finally, we discuss issues that the econometrician faces in measuring inequality of opportunity, briefly review the empirical literature (section 6), and conclude (section 7).