Chanel

Olivier Chanel

  • Chercheur
Contact :

Aix-Marseille Université
AMSE
5-9 Boulevard Bourdet, CS 50498
13205 Marseille Cedex 1
Téléphone : +33 (0)4 13 55 25 35
Directeur de recherche
CNRS
Domaines de recherche :
Économétrie
Économie de l'environnement
Économie de la santé
Thèse :
1993
École des hautes études en sciences sociales
Reducing the anchoring bias in multiple question CV surveys, Victor Champonnois, Olivier Chanel et Khaled Makhloufi, Journal of choice modelling, Volume 28, Issue C, pp. 1-9, 2018

The elicitation format is a crucial aspect of Contingent Valuation (CV) surveys and can impact their reliability. This paper contributes to the extensive debate on WTP (Willingness To Pay) elicitation formats by assessing whether the Circular Payment Card (CPC) can reduce anchoring on respondents' previous answers under multiple elicitation questions. This new format uses a visual pie-chart representation without start or end points: respondents spin the circular card in any direction until they find the section that best matches their WTP. We used a CV survey based on two ways of reducing risks associated with flooding, each randomly presented first to half of the respondents, to test the absolute performance of CPC. We presented a second survey on two social insurance schemes for subjects currently uninsured to respondents randomly split into three subgroups. Each group's WTP was elicited using one of three formats: Open-Ended (OE), standard Payment Card (PC) and the new CPC. The two insurance schemes were always proposed in the same order, and we assessed the relative performance of CPC by comparing anchoring across respondents. Our results provide evidence that CPC is likely to reduce anchoring in multiple elicitation questions and that respondents may rely on different heuristic decisions when giving WTP in the OE and in the two PC formats.

When do social cues and scientific information affect stated preferences? Insights from an experiment on air pollution, Dominique Ami, Frédéric Aprahamian, Olivier Chanel et Stéphane Luchini, Journal of Choice Modelling, Volume 29, pp. 33-46, 2018

Stated preference surveys are usually carried out in one session, without any follow-up interview after respondents have had the opportunity to experience the public goods or policies they were asked to value. Consequently, a stated preference survey needs to be designed so as to provide respondents with all the relevant information, and to help them process this information so they can perform the valuation exercise properly. In this paper, we study experimentally an elicitation procedure in which respondents are provided with a sequence of different types of information (social cues and objective information) that allows them to sequentially revise their willingness-to-pay (WTP) values. Our experiment was carried out in large groups using an electronic voting system which allows us to construct social cues in real time. To analyse the data, we developed an anchoring-type structural model that allows us to estimate the direct effect (at the current round) and the indirect effect (on subsequent rounds) of information. Our results shed new light on the interacted effect of social cues and objective information: social cues have little or no direct effect on WTP values but they have a strong indirect effect on how respondents process scientific information. Social cues have the most noticeable effect on respondents who initially report a WTP below the group average but only after receiving additional objective information about the valuation task. We suggest that the construction and the provision of social cues should be added to the list of tools and controls for stated preference methods.

Evaluation économique des impacts de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines sur la mortalité en France continentale, Olivier Chanel, pp. 54, 2017

Ce document évalue monétairement les impacts de l’exposition chronique aux particules fines sur la mortalité calculés par Santé publique France (Pascal et al., 2016a, 2016b) en France continentale. Il reprend les 5 scénarios de réduction retenus et les deux méthodes de mesure de la mortalité : en nombre de décès prématurés évités et en nombre total d’années de vie gagnées. Les calculs sont effectués pour la France continentale entière, et pour chacune des 12 nouvelles régions. Ils apportent un argument supplémentaire sur la nécessité de réduire l’exposition des populations à la pollution de l’air ambiant en France. Une synthèse est disponible dans Chanel (2017).

Exploring the Role of Emotions in Decisions Involving Catastrophic Risks: Lessons from a Double Investigation, Olivier Chanel, Graciela Chichilnisky, Sébastien Massoni et Jean-Christophe Vergnaud, In: The Economics of the Global Environment, Graciela Chichilnisky et Armon Rezai (Eds.), 2017, Volume 29, pp. 553-575, Springer, Cham, 2017

Natural disasters due to climate change (like floods, hurricanes, heat waves or droughts) combine a risk of large losses and a low probability of occurrence, requiring decisions to be made in uncertain universes. However, the inability of standard decision under uncertainty models to provide rankings when some outcomes are catastrophic impedes rational (public) decision-making. This paper examines the role of emotions in individuals’ choices among alternatives involving catastrophic events, either in real life (flooding) or artificial (laboratory experiment) situations. We report a survey on 599 respondents aimed at determining how people exposed to different levels of flood risk form beliefs and make decisions under uncertainty before and after emotion-generating events. Data on their emotions, the emotions they expect to experience, their personality and psychological determinants, their symptoms before and after emotion-generating events are collected and analyzed. In parallel with this survey, experimental protocols replicate the emotional experience of a catastrophe and measure its impact on behavior and formation of beliefs. Emotions are induced by framing effects and measured through a self-declared worry scale. We collect behavioral data (insurance choice, subjective beliefs, performance) and measure how they are affected by the emotions felt during the decision-making. These protocols test some assumptions in the survey using experimental paradigms from psychophysics that allow us to control the sources of uncertainty experienced by the subjects. Results confirm that emotions connected with the nature of the risk can significantly affect desire to reduce it. The survey provides valuable material for comparative analysis, revealing how actual experience of an anticipated event affects decisions. The experiments show that emotions affect the decision-making process and the forming of probabilistic beliefs.

Take the Money and Run? Hypothetical Fee Variations and French GPs’ Labour Supply, Olivier Chanel, Alain Paraponaris, Christel Protière et Bruno Ventelou, Revue Économique, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp. 357-377, 2017

This paper analyses how French general practitioners? (GPs) labour supply would respond to changes in their fee per consultation, seeking to determine whether there is a backward-bending curve.?Because French GPs? fees only evolve very slowly and are generally fixed by the National Health Insurance Fund, fee variability is not sufficient to observe changes in labour supply.?Therefore, we designed a contingent valuation survey randomly presenting GPs with three hypothetical fee increases.?Empirical evidence from 1,400 GPs supports the hypothesis of a negative slope in their labour supply curve.?This suggests that increasing fees is not an effective policy to increase the supply of medical services. JEL Codes: C21, I12, J22, J4.

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