Claire Alestra*, Marion Coste**
Camille Hainnaux : camille.hainnaux[at]univ-amu.fr
Daniela Horta Saenz : daniela.horta-saenz[at]univ-amu.fr
Jade Ponsard : jade.ponsard[at]univ-amu.fr
Nathan Vieira : nathan.vieira[at]univ-amu.fr
*Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, Germany has adopted the 2011 Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz), which plans the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022. It establishes the immediate and permanent shutdown of half of the country’s nuclear reactors and the gradual closure of the remaining ones. Previous literature shows that this phase-out entails a significant transformation of the German energy market, with considerable changes in the electricity mix, imports and prices. Using German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) data at the district scale and the Difference-in-Difference approach, this paper aims to evaluate the impacts of this exogenous policy on labour market outcomes. I develop different empirical strategies to assess two distinct classes of effects. First, I quantify direct and induced effects, at the local scale, on nuclear workers and the surrounding economy. To do so, I compare variations in labour outcomes before and after the phase-out between places experiencing or not a nuclear reactor closure. Then, I measure an indirect effect, through the general growth in electricity prices, by contrasting changes in labour outcomes before and after the phase-out between regions with a high/low employment rate in electricity-intensive manufacturing sectors. This study aspires to help fill the gap in empirical work assessing the effects of large-scale nuclear shutdowns, a policy considered by other countries, as well as to contribute to the discussion on the consequences of ambitious energy policies and the current rise of electricity prices.
**Who should be the target of health policy and interventions in sub-Saharan Africa? Despite the well-documented relationship between economic resources and health outcomes, recent evidence shows that people with health needs are majoritarily not found in poor households. In this paper, I use a structural equation model (SEM) to simultaneously estimate and characterize deficits in health status, empowerment, and access to health care, using individual survey data from rural Senegal (the ANRS12356 AmBASS survey). I find that individuals living in resource-rich households are more likely to experience lower levels of empowerment, while reporting better health, and optimal access to health services. In contrast, empowerment increases with individual earnings, and is significantly associated with improved health status. These results suggest that empowerment is the missing puzzle piece in the complex relationship between health and poverty in rural sub-Saharan Africa. A SEM-based model of health capability offers a way forward in pinpointing individuals to be targeted by a differentiated yet complementary set of policy and interventions for the promotion of health status, decision-making latitude, and access to healthcare, respectively. In particular, the model identifies cumulative vulnerabilities in women and permanent residents, and sheds light on intrinsic motivation as a shared lever for overall health capability.