Gilles Dufrénot : gilles.dufrenot[at]sciencespo-aix.fr
Kiyotaka Sato : sato[at]ynu.ac.jp
This study empirically investigates how the invoice currency choice differs between intra-firm and arm’s-length exports. We also examine whether other firm- and product-level characteristics affect the choice of invoice currency. This study is the first to be granted access to highly disaggregated transaction-level trade data for Japan. Focusing on Japanese automobile exports to France, we demonstrate that the importer’s currency tends to be chosen in intra-firm export invoicing based on a panel logit estimation. Our empirical findings remain robust when different types of intra-firm export variables and other conventional explanatory variables are introduced, such as firm and product market share, exchange rate volatility, a dummy for intermediate goods exports, euro-invoiced imports, labor productivity, and research and development intensity. Given growing intra-firm trade and expanding global value chains, Japanese parent firms tend to invoice in the importers’ currency, assuming the foreign exchange risk that arises from intra-firm trade. Thus, exchange rate risk management is a significant consideration for Japanese parent firms.