La plupart des informations présentées ci-dessous ont été récupérées via RePEc avec l'aimable autorisation de Christian Zimmermann
General practitioners' attitude towards cooperation with other health professionals in managing patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy: A cross-sectional studyJournal articleHélène Carrier, Anna Zaytseva, Aurélie Bocquier, Patrick Villani, Martin Fortin et Pierre Verger, European Journal of General Practice, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp. 109-117, 2022

Cooperation between general practitioners (GPs) and other healthcare professionals appears to help reduce the risk of polypharmacy-related adverse events in patients with multimorbidity.
To investigate GPs profiles according to their opinions and attitudes about interprofessional cooperation and to study the association between these profiles and GPs’ characteristics.
Between May and July 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a panel of French GPs about their management of patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy, focussing on their opinions on the roles of healthcare professionals and interprofessional cooperation. We used agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to identify GPs profiles, then multivariable logistic regression models to study their associations with the characteristics of these doctors.
1183 GPs responded to the questionnaire. We identified four profiles of GPs according to their declared attitudes towards cooperation: GPs in the ‘very favourable’ profile (14%) were willing to cooperate with various health professionals, including the delegation of some prescribing tasks to pharmacists; GPs in the ‘moderately favourable’ profile (47%) had favourable views on the roles of health professionals, with the exception for this specific delegation of the task; GPs from the ‘selectively favourable’ profile (27%) tended to work only with doctors; GPs from the ‘non-cooperative’ profile (12%) did not seem to be interested in cooperation. Some profiles were associated with GPs’ ages or participation in continuing medical education.
Our study highlights disparities between GPs regarding cooperation with other professionals caring for their patients and suggests ways to improve cooperation.

Murder nature: Weather and violent crime in rural BrazilJournal articlePhoebe W. Ishak, World Development, Volume 157, pp. 105933, 2022

This paper examines the effect of weather shocks on violent crime using disaggregated data from Brazilian municipalities over the period 1991–2015. Employing a distributed lag model that takes into account temporal correlations of weather shocks and spatial correlation of crime rates, I document that adverse weather shocks in the form of droughts lead to a significant increase in violent crime in rural regions. This effect appears to persist beyond the growing season and over the medium run in contrast to the conventional view perceiving weather effects as transitory. To explain this persistence, I show that weather fluctuations are positively associated not only with agriculture yields, but also with the overall economic activity. Moreover, evidence shows the dominance of opportunity cost mechanism reflected in the fluctuations of the earnings especially for the agriculture and unskilled workers, giving credence that it is indeed the income that matters and not the general socio-economic conditions. Other factors such as local government budget capacity, (un)-employment, poverty, inequality, and psychological factors do not seem to explain violent crime rates.

The impact of 2020 French municipal elections on the spread of COVID-19Journal articleGuilhem Cassan et Marc Sangnier, Journal of Population Economics, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp. 963-988, 2022

Soon after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government decided to still hold the first round of the 2020 municipal elections as scheduled on March 15. What was the impact of these elections on the spread of COVID-19 in France? Answering this question leads to intricate econometric issues as omitted variables may drive both epidemiological dynamics and electoral turnout, and as a national lockdown was imposed at almost the same time as the elections. In order to disentangle the effect of the elections from that of confounding factors, we first predict each department’s epidemiological dynamics using information up to the election. We then take advantage of differences in electoral turnout across departments to identify the impact of the election on prediction errors in hospitalizations. We report a detrimental effect of the first round of the election on hospitalizations in locations that were already at relatively advanced stages of the epidemic. Estimates suggest that the elections accounted for at least 3,000 hospitalizations, or 11% of all hospitalizations by the end of March. Given the sizable health cost of holding elections during an epidemic, promoting ways of voting that reduce exposure to COVID-19 is key until the pandemic shows signs of abating.

Potential growth and natural yield curve in JapanJournal articleGilles Dufrénot, Meryem Rhouzlane et Etienne Vaccaro-Grange, Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 124, pp. 102628, 2022

We estimate the yield curve gap in Japan and examine whether it has contributed to the sustained low growth and low inflation rates observed since the beginning 2000s. We use a semi-structural empirical model that generalizes Laubach and Williams’ approach, considering the entire range of maturities of the interest rates and dealing with the issue of mixed frequency sampling. An important result is that, even in the absence of a zero lower bound, monetary and fiscal policies proved ineffective in bringing the Japanese economy out of a situation of prolonged stagnation and low inflation. This happened even when the yield curve moved below its natural level.

Language and the cultural markers of COVID-19Journal articleNeha Deopa et Piergiuseppe Fortunato, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 301, pp. 114886, 2022

Despite its universal nature, the impact of COVID-19 has not been geographically homogeneous. While certain countries and regions have been severely affected, registering record infection rates and excess deaths, others experienced only milder outbreaks. We investigate to what extent human factors, in particular cultural origins reflected in different attitudes and behavioural norms, can explain different degrees of exposure to the virus. Motivated by the linguistic relativity hypothesis, we take language as a proxy for cultural origins and exploit the exogenous variation in the language spoken around the border that divides the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland to estimate the impact of culture on exposure to COVID-19. The results obtained using a spatial regression discontinuity design reveal, that within 50- and 25- kilometres bandwidth from the language border, the average COVID-19 exposure levels for individuals in French speaking municipalities was higher. In particular, we find that German speaking municipalities were associated with a reduction of around 40% - 50% in the odds of COVID-19 exposure compared to the French speaking municipalities.

When the messenger is more important than the message: an experimental study of evidence use in francophone AfricaJournal articleAmandine Fillol, Esther McSween-Cadieux, Bruno Ventelou, Marie-Pier Larose, Ulrich Boris Ngue Kanguem, Kadidiatou Kadio, Christian Dagenais et Valéry Ridde, Health Research Policy and Systems, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp. 57, 2022

Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context.
The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African.
The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university.
The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices.

When do privatizations have popular support? A voting modelJournal articleRim Lahmandi-Ayed et Didier Laussel, Journal of Mathematical Economics, Volume 100, pp. 102633, 2022

We consider a general equilibrium model with vertical preferences, where workers and consumers are differentiated respectively by their sensitivity to effort and their intensity of preference for quality. We consider a public monopoly, i.e. which is owned equally by all individuals. The question is under which conditions the firm will be privatized and at which rate/price. The decisions are taken through majority vote in a plurality system. When the firm is controlled by the State, the price is determined through a vote among all the population. Otherwise, the price is the one which maximizes the profit. We prove that, when the maximum disutility of working in the firm is higher than the maximum utility of consuming its output, privatization may emerge as a possible choice of the majority, even if no hypothesis is made on the efficiency of a private management relative to a public one.

Applying the health capability profile to empirically study chronic hepatitis B in rural Senegal: a social justice mixed-methods study protocolJournal articleMarion Coste, Mouhamed Ahmed Badji, Aldiouma Diallo, Marion Mora, Sylvie Boyer et Jennifer J. Prah, BMJ Open, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp. e055957, 2022

Despite the early implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and the ongoing decentralisation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) care, over 10% of the Senegalese adult population lives with CHB and liver cancer remains a main cause of death. Investigating factors associated with CHB infection, prevention of CHB-related morbidity, and prevention and treatment of mortality secondary to CHB calls for a holistic and multidimensional approach. This paper presents the adaptation of the health capability profile (HCP) to a specific epidemiological issue and empirical setting: it seeks to identify and analyse inter-related abilities and conditions (health capabilities) in relation to the CHB epidemic in the rural area of Niakhar, Senegal.
Methods and analysis:
This ongoing study relies on a sequential social justice mixed-methods design. The HCP is comprehensively adapted to CHB in rural Senegal and guides the design and conduct of the study. Objective and subjective data are collected at the individual level following a mixed-methods explanatory core design. The quantitative module, embedded in the ANRS12356 AmBASS cross-sectional survey (exhaustive sampling), is used to select a purposeful sampling of participants invited for one-on-one qualitative interviews. Additional data are collected at the institutional and community level through health facility surveys and an ethnography (in-depth interviews) of local and national CHB stakeholders. Data analysis adopts a synergistic approach to produce a multilayered analysis of individual HCPs and crosscutting analysis of the 15 health capabilities. The data integration strategy relies on a mixed-methods convergent core design, and will use 0–100 health capability scores as well as flow diagrams to measure and characterise levels of development and interactions among health capabilities, respectively.
Ethics and dissemination:
This study was approved by Senegalese and French authorities. Results dissemination through local workshops and scientific publications aim at fuelling effective policy change towards CHB-related health capability.

Set-valued variational principles. When migration improves quality of lifeJournal articleMajid Fakhar, Mohammadreza Khodakhah, Antoine Soubeyran et Jafar Zafarani, Journal of Applied and Numerical Optimization, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 37-51, 2022

In this paper, in the context of quasi-metric spaces, we obtain two set-valued versions of the Ekeland variational-type principle by means of lower and upper set less relations, for the case where the perturbations need not satisfy the triangle inequality. An application in terms of migration problems and quality of life is given.

Income Distribution by Age Group and Productive BubblesJournal articleXavier Raurich et Thomas Seegmuller, Macroeconomic Dynamics, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp. 769-799, 2022

The aim of this paper is to study the role of the distribution of income by age group on the existence of speculative bubbles. A crucial question is whether this distribution may promote a bubble associated to a larger level of capital, that is a productive bubble. We address these issues in an overlapping generations model where agents live three periods and productive investment done in the first period of life is an illiquid investment whose return occurs in the following two periods. A bubble is a liquid speculative investment that facilitates intertemporal consumption smoothing. We show that the distribution of income by age group determines both the existence and the effect of bubbles on aggregate production. We also show that fiscal policy, by changing the distribution of income, may facilitate or prevent the existence of bubbles and may also modify the effect that bubbles have on aggregate production.