Chanel

Publications

Comment les individus valorisent-ils les décès associés à la pollution atmosphérique ? Une comparaison de trois scénarios hypothétiquesJournal articleDominique Ami, Frédéric Aprahamian, Olivier Chanel and Stéphane Luchini, Économie et Statistique, Volume 460-461, Issue 1, pp. 107-128, 2013

[fr] La valorisation économique d’une diminution du risque de mortalité recourt de plus en plus fréquemment aux techniques d’évaluation contingente. Celles‑ci consistent à interroger un échantillon d’individus sur leur «consentement à payer » (CAP) pour réduire ce risque à partir de scénarios hypothétiques. Les CAP dépendent toutefois de nombreux facteurs et notamment de la nature du risque sous‑jacent et du scénario proposé pour le réduire. Cet article s’intéresse à la diminution du risque de mortalité associé à une exposition à la pollution atmosphérique et teste l’effet d’une modification du contexte d’évaluation hypothétique à travers trois scénarios : un nouveau médicament, un déménagement et de nouvelles réglementations. Pour analyser les CAP déclarés dans les différents scénarios, nous définissons un cadre d’analyse unifié, théorique puis économétrique, qui prend en compte les préférences des participants pour le présent, ainsi que celles des autres membres du ménage. Deux résultats en découlent. Les taux d’actualisation implicites estimés, spécifiques à chacun des scénarios hypothétiques, se révèlent significativement différents. De l’ordre de 7 % pour le scénario «déménagement » , ils sont respectivement de 24 % et 26 % pour les scénarios «médicament » et «réglementation » . Il en résulte des «valeurs d’évitement d’un décès » (VED) moyennes très différentes entre le scénario «déménagement » (801 000) d’une part, et les scénarios «médicament » (299 000) et «réglementation » (252 000) d’autre part.
[en] The economic value placed on a reduction in the risk of mortality relies more and more frequently on contingent assessment techniques. These consist in questioning a sample of individuals on their “ willingness to pay” (WTP) in order to reduce this risk, on the basis of hypothetical scenarios. These WTP nevertheless depend on many factors, especially the nature of the underlying risk and the scenario proposed to reduce it. This article deals with reducing the risk of mortality associated with exposure to atmospheric pollution and tests the effect of a change in the hypothetical context of assessment through three scenarios : a new drug, a house move and new regulations. To analyse the “ willingness to pay” stated in the different scenarios, we define a unified, theoretical then econometric framework of analysis, taking into account the preferences of the participants at present, and also those of other household members. There are two main results. The estimated implicit updating rates, specific to each hypothetical scenario, were seen to differ significantly. They were about 7% for the “ move” scenario and 24% and 26% for the “ drugs” and “ regulations” scenarios respectively. Results showed that the average “ values set for avoiding death” differed greatly between the “ move” scenario (801,000) on the one hand, and the “ drugs” (299,000) and “ regulations” (252,000) scenarios on the other hand.

Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network)Journal articleLaura Perez, Christophe Declercq, Carmen Iñiguez, Inmaculada Aguilera, Chiara Badaloni, Ferran Ballester, Catherine Bouland, Olivier Chanel, Francisco B. Cirarda, Francesco Forastiere, et al., The European respiratory journal, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp. 594-605, 2013

Recent epidemiological research suggests that near road traffic-related pollution may cause chronic disease, as well as exacerbate related pathologies, implying that the entire “chronic disease progression” should be attributed to air pollution, no matter what the proximate cause was. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution in 10 European cities by calculating the number of cases of 1) asthma caused by near road traffic-related pollution, and 2) acute asthma events related to urban air pollution levels. We then expanded our approach to include coronary heart diseases in adults.Derivation of attributable cases required combining concentration-response function (CRF) between exposures and the respective health outcome of interest (obtained from published literature), an estimate of the distribution of selected exposures in the target population, and information about the frequency of the assessed morbidities.Exposure to roads with high vehicle traffic, a proxy for near road traffic-related pollution, accounted for 14% of all asthma cases. When a causal relationship between near road traffic-related pollution and asthma is assumed, 15% of all episodes of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Without this assumption, only 2% of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Similar patterns were found for coronary heart diseases in older adults.Pollutants along busy roads are responsible for a large and preventable share of chronic disease and related acute exacerbation in European urban areas.

Comment modéliser les déterminants locaux de préservation des espaces non-artificialisés en France ? L'apport d'une confrontation littérature-terrainJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Laurence Delattre and Claude Napoléone, Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Issue 5, pp. 805-829, 2012

While international and national policies call for containing urban expansion to conserve agricultural and natural lands, France is still experiencing a relatively strong sprawl. So we analyze the determinants of land-use plans favoring a parsimonious allocation of land to urban development. A state of the art of theoretical models as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical studies is confronted with a qualitative field study (semi-directive interviews among municipal elected officials in South-Eastern France). This allows a typology of municipalities according to their urban development strategies. Thus, determinants such as agricultural activity?s dynamism and image, elected official?s political legitimacy, previous or surrounding municipality?s policies and existing built-up patterns are outlined while they are usually not considered in theoretical models and their empirical validation. Finally, we sketch a model of local determinants of non-built land conservation more in line with the French context.

A literature review: Air pollution interventions and their impact on public healthJournal articleSusann Henschel, Richard Atkinson, Ariana Zeka, Alain Le Tertre, Antonis Analitis, Klea Katsouyanni, Olivier Chanel, Mathilde Pascal, Bertil Forsberg, Sylvia Medina, et al., International Journal of Public Health, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp. 757-768, 2012

Numerous epidemiological studies have found a link between air pollution and health. We are reviewing a collection of published intervention studies with particular focus on studies assessing both improvements in air quality and associated health effects.
Interventions, defined as events aimed at reducing air pollution or where reductions occurred as a side effect, e.g. strikes, German reunification, from the 1960s onwards were considered for inclusion. This review is not a complete record of all existing air pollution interventions. In total, 28 studies published in English were selected based on a systematic search of internet databases.
Overall air pollution interventions have succeeded at improving air quality. Consistently published evidence suggests that most of these interventions have been associated with health benefits, mainly by the way of reduced cardiovascular and/or respiratory mortality and/or morbidity. The decrease in mortality from the majority of the reviewed interventions has been estimated to exceed the expected predicted figures based on the estimates from time-series studies.
There is consistent evidence that decreased air pollution levels following an intervention resulted in health benefits for the assessed population.

L'évaluation monétaire des effets sanitaires associés à la pollution atmosphériqueJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Pollution Atmosphérique, Issue N° Spécial Novembre, pp. 80-83, 2012

Lorsque le bien-être d’un individu est influencé par l’activité d’une tierce personne qui ne prend pas en compte ses retombées lors de son processus de prise de décision, l’évaluation économique parle d’externalité. Si les externalités peuvent parfois être positives, elles sont clairement négatives et très importantes dans le cas de la pollution atmosphérique.
Afin de pallier les défaillances du marché qu’elles provoquent, la théorie économique recommande de les chiffrer en termes monétaires. On dispose alors de guides visant à les internaliser, c’est-à-dire à les incorporer – partiellement ou totalement – dans les coûts associés aux activités qui les génèrent.
Après avoir présenté et discuté rapidement les méthodes de valorisation économique disponibles dans le cadre particulier de la pollution atmosphérique, nous aborderons quelques incertitudes et défis de l’évaluation économique et les illustrerons par certains résultats de l’étude européenne Aphekom (www.aphekom.org).

A Test of Cheap Talk in Different Hypothetical Contexts: The Case of Air PollutionJournal articleDominique Ami, Frédéric Aprahamian, Olivier Chanel and Stéphane Luchini, Environmental & Resource Economics, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp. 111-130, 2011

We explore the influence of a neutral cheap talk script in three typical scenarios used in the CV literature devoted to the valuation of air pollution effects. We show that cheap talk has a differentiated effect depending on the scenario implemented. It decreases protest responses with no effect on WTP values in the scenario based on a new drug. When a move to a less polluted city is involved, it has no effect on protest responses but decreases WTP values. Surprisingly, cheap talk increases protest responses but decreases WTP values when new regional air pollution regulations are at stake.

Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1)Journal articleOlivier Chanel, Stéphane Luchini, Sébastien Massoni and Jean-Christophe Vergnaud, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp. 142-148, 2011

Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate.

L’environnement dans la décision publique Refonder l’évaluation socio-économique pour des politiques de transport plus durablesBookMéthodes et Approches, Olivier Chanel and Guillaume Faburel (Eds.), 2010, 230 pages, Economica, 2010

Les relations transports et environnement ont considérablement évolué ces dernières années. Les manifestations les plus visibles de ce jour relèvent tant de la taxe carbone, du bonus/malus écologique… que des concertations territoriales pour les projets d'équipement. Le calcul socio-économique fut logiquement mobilisé pour évaluer les nuisances environnementales, mais ces évaluations n'ont que peu irrigué la prise de décision, elle-même soumise à des évolutions de fond : territorialisation, institutionnalisation du débat public et quête de compromis par le développement durable.
Cet ouvrage confronte les réflexions de chercheurs de champs différents et d'acteurs de secteurs et institutions multiples sur l'appropriation des méthodes d'évaluation socio-économique de l'environnement. Partant d'un inventaire actualisé des méthodes et données disponibles sur les coûts environnementaux des transports, il offre ensuite des clés pour comprendre les enjeux, limites et perspectives de telles évaluations. Elles pourraient s'avérer, sous conditions, le vecteur de négociations et de compromis entre acteurs, en vue de politiques de transport plus durables.

The influence of fear in decisions: Experimental evidenceJournal articleOlivier Chanel and Graciela Chichilnisky, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp. 271-298, 2009

No abstract is available for this item.

Transport, Health and Climate Change: Deciding on the Optimal PolicyJournal articleOlivier Chanel, Laure Cabantous and Jean-Christophe Vergnaud, Economie Internationale, Issue 120, pp. 11-36, 2009

Transport generates many externalities, some related to atmospheric pollution. In this paper, we focus on two: greenhouse gases, and local pollution. In the search for optimal transport policies, these two externalities have usually been analysed separately. Here, we study them jointly, in a sequential decision-making model. Our model allows for the irreversibility of the policies undertaken, as well as the possibility of a progressive reduction of uncertainties with the arrival of information. We find that when both sources of externalities are analysed jointly, structural measures enabling private transport requirements to be reduced are identified as being more advantageous economically than technological measures to reduce emissions of pollutants. We illustrate the usefulness of a joint analysis of externalities with two examples: tax measures on cars and housing policy.