Mexico's Monetary Policy Communication and Money MarketsJournal articleAlicia García-Herrero, Eric Girardin and Arnoldo Lopez-Marmolejo, International Journal of Economics and Finance, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp. 81-97, 2019

Central bank communication is becoming a key aspect of monetary policy. How much financial markets listen and, possibly, understand Banco de Mexico’s communication on its monetary policy stance should be a key consideration for the central bank to further modernize its monetary policy toolkit. In this paper, we tackle this issue empirically by using our own index of the tone of communication based on Banco de Mexico’s speeches and statements and find that Mexican money markets do not only listen but they also understand the stance of monetary policy conveyed in the central bank’s words. Regarding the ability to listen we find that both the volatility and volume in the money market rates change right after communication from Banco de Mexico’s governing body. As for the markets’ understanding, we document a statistically significant rise in money market rates the more hawkish communication is. All in all, our results show strong evidence of effective oral and written communication from the Central Bank towards Mexico’s money markets.

The January effect in the foreign exchange market: Evidence for seasonal equity carry tradesJournal articleEric Girardin and Fatemeh Salimi Namin, Economic Modelling, Volume 81, Issue C, pp. 422-439, 2019

In this study, we investigate monthly seasonality in the foreign exchange market. Given the well-known recurrent higher returns in some month than in others in stock markets around the world, we consider it likely that a seasonal outperformance of a country’s stock market over another is associated with similar seasonal patterns in capital flows and exchange rates. A seasonal profit (carry trade) opportunity can be created by the simultaneous appreciation of a country’s currency and the outperformance of its stock market. By focusing on the world’s key currency pairs, the US dollar-Deutsche mark and the US dollar-euro, and by using a Markov-switching framework, we document persistent January and December effects in the foreign exchange market from 1971 to 2017. Analysis of the German-US stock returns differential and their bilateral capital flows reveal similar month effects in 65% of the whole sample.

Demystifying China’s Stock Market: The Hidden Logic behind the PuzzlesBookEric Girardin and Zhenya Liu, Springer Books, 2019-12, Number 978-3-030-17123-0, XXI,125 pages, Springer International Publishing, 2019

Mainstream research has rationalized China’s stock market on the basis of paradigms such as the institutional approach, the efficient market hypothesis, and corporate valuation principles. The deviations from such paradigms have been analyzed as puzzles of China’s stock market. Girardin and Liu explore to what extent, in the perspective of Chinese cultural and historical characteristics, far from being puzzles, these 'deviations’ are rather the symptoms of a consistent strategy for the design, development and regulation of a government-dominated financial system. This book will help investors, observers and researchers understand the hidden logic of the design and functioning of China’s modern stock market, taking a political economy view.

Inflation Dynamics of Franc-Zone Countries Determinants, Co-movements and Spatial InteractionsJournal articleEric Girardin and Cheikh A. T. Sall, Open Economies Review, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp. 295-320, 2018

This paper shows the uneven role played in the inflation dynamics of African franc zone countries by their integration in a regional monetary union. We obtain three main results sharply contrasting the central- (CEMAC) and west-African (WAEMU) regions. First, differences in the structure of economies and national fiscal stances play a similar role in both unions and appear as potential sources of inflation differentials. Second, even though co-movements are the principal drivers of inflation dynamics in both subregions, global factors dominate regional ones in WAEMU while both play an equal role in CEMAC. Thirdly, spatial interactions are unimportant in CEMAC due to little intra-zone trade, but take an asymmetric form in WAEMU due to the large size of Ivory Coast and Senegal.

Fundamentals and the volatility of real estate prices in China: A sequential modelling strategyJournal articleYongheng Deng, Eric Girardin and Roselyne Joyeux, China Economic Review, Volume 48, Issue C, pp. 205-222, 2018

In a similar way to the stock market, the housing market in China has often been portrayed as highly speculative, giving rise to “bubble” concerns. Over the last decade, residential prices increased every year on average by double digits in Beijing or Shanghai. However many observers and researchers argue that fundamentals of the housing sector, both sector-specific and macroeconomic, may have been the driving force behind housing price volatility. While existing empirical work exclusively relies on the government housing prices which may suffer from the well-documented downward bias, this paper uses original high frequency unit price as well as transaction series for the residential resale housing markets of Beijing and Shanghai between January 2005 and December 2010 to test alternative hypotheses about housing prices volatility.

Stock Market Bubble Migration: From Shanghai to Hong Kong: Essays in Honor of Georges PratBook chapterEric Girardin, Roselyne Joyeux and Shuping Shi, In: Uncertainty, Expectations and Asset Price Dynamics, 2018-12, pp. 173-192, Springer International Publishing, 2018

The speculative nature of the stock market in Mainland China has attracted the attention of many observers. However while the degree of integration of the Hong Kong market with its Mainland counterpart has monopolized the interest of researchers, they have neglected the diffusion of bubbles from the latter to the former. We thus propose the first study of such bubble migration. Focusing on the period 2005–2017, we use the Phillips et al. (Int Econ Rev 56:1043–1078, 2015a; Int Econ Rev 52:201–226, 2015b) recursive explosive root test to detect and date speculative episodes in both markets. We then implement the Greenaway-McGrevy and Phillips (NZ Econ Pap 50:88–113, 2016) methodology to detect the presence of migration between the two markets. We detect significant, but dwindling, bubble migration from Shanghai to Hong Kong.

Global slack and open economy Phillips curves – A province-level view from ChinaJournal articleChangsheng Chen, Eric Girardin and Aaron Mehrotra, China Economic Review, Volume 42, Issue C, pp. 74-87, 2017

The “global slack hypothesis” implies that greater integration of the world economy, i.e. globalisation, should have made inflation more responsive to global than domestic economic slack. Many previous studies have accordingly estimated national inflation equations with measures of global output gaps. We use three and a half decades of subnational data from China's provinces to test the global slack hypothesis. Using tests for non-nested regressions, for many provinces we can reject a Phillips curve with a province-level measure of economic slack against a model with China's national output gap, which is consistent with the hypothesis. We also show that the real exchange rate matters for inflation dynamics in many Chinese provinces, in particular those most open to international trade. In addition to supporting the global slack hypothesis, our results emphasise the importance of cross-border factors for China's inflation developments.

Analyzing the Impact of Monetary Policy on Financial Markets in ChileJournal articleAlicia García-Herrero, Eric Girardin and Hermann Gonzalez, Revista de análisis económico, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp. 3-21, 2017

During the past few years, monetary policy communication has become a hot topic in as far as it seems to have become a very relevant way for central banks to guide markets, beyond actual monetary policy decisions. This paper investigates this issue empirically for the case of Chile. More specifically, using data from 2005 to 2014 and a Component GARCH model, we assess whether changes in the communication of the Central Bank of Chile generates in particular a permanent or temporary change in the volatility of interest rates, after controlling for changes in monetary policy instruments. Our results show that the volatility in interest rate futures in Chile’s swap markets increases following the Central Bank’s communication. However, the impact tends to be temporary instead of permanent and only statistically significant in the pre-crisis period. All in all, our results indicate a reduced relevance of Central Bank’s communication for short term swap markets which may reflect that market participants have learned to anticipate changes in monetary policy communication, especially after the global financial crisis.

Do as I Do, and Also as I Say: Monetary Policy Impact on Brazil’s Financial MarketsJournal articleAlicia García-Herrero, Eric Girardin and Enestor Dos Santos, Economía, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp. 65-92, 2017

We analyze how Brazilian financial markets, in particular interest rate futures, react to monetary policy in terms of both deeds (that is, changes in the policy rate) and words (that is, central bank communication). Using daily data from 2005 to 2014, we find that interest futures rates react in the expected direction to both the central bank’s actions and its words: futures rates rise (fall) after both an increase (decrease) in the reference interest rate and a hawkish (dovish) communication by the Central Bank of Brazil. We also find that the Central Bank’s words create noise, since they increase the volatility of futures rates. Our analysis further reveals that the effectiveness of monetary policy communication increased after the 2008 international crisis, as measured by its larger impact on future rates and reduced volatility. At the same time, deeds became less relevant: the effect of changes in the Central Bank’s policy rate on futures rates declined.

Did bubbles migrate from the stock to the housing market in China between 2005 and 2010?Journal articleYongheng Deng, Eric Girardin, Roselyne Joyeux and Shuping Shi, Pacific Economic Review, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp. 276-292, 2017

The speculative nature of both stock and housing markets in China has attracted the attention of observers. However, while stock market data are easily available, the low frequency and low quality of publicly available housing price data hampers the study of the relationship between the two markets. We use original hedonic weekly resale housing prices of a major Chinese housing market and study them in conjunction with Shanghai's stock market index in the second half of the 2000s. The use of the Phillips et al. (2015 a,b) recursive explosive-root test enables us to detect and date speculative episodes in both markets. We then implement the Greenaway-McGrevy and Phillips (2016) methodology to detect the presence of migration between the two types of bubbles. We detect significant migration from the stock to the housing market bubble in 2009 and a temporary spillover in 2007.