Joffrey Stary*, Dimitrios Argyros**
Lucie Giorgi: lucie.giorgi[at]univ-amu.fr
Ricardo Guzman: ricardo.guzman[at]univ-amu.fr
Natalia Labrador: natalia.labrador-bernate[at]univ-amu.fr
Nathan Vieira: nathan.vieira[at]univ-amu.fr
*The contemporary climate of mistrust towards representative democracy has led to an increase in the popularity of so-called "direct democracy" instruments such as referendums. Their promoters generally claim that this mode of decision-making would lead to policies closer to citizens' preferences than the representative route. While the literature has focused on the study of the policy-congruence of such tools, the present paper investigates the effect of the referendum instrument as a determinants of representation voting by electors. The referendum is a tool in the hands of politicians, but used asymmetrically; both in term of subject and question asked to citizens. I put forward theoretical arguments to highlight the non-neutrality of referendum on the outcome of representatives election based on the removal of a policy dimension in the representative bundle of policy that suggest a potential strategic usage by parties. I also make an empirical contribution by investigating the determinants of legislator-initiated referendum supply in the US states, and the alteration of the electorate's vote.
**In this study, I examine the influence of financial infrastructure on child health outcomes in rural India, with a specific focus on how enhanced access to rural banks can mitigate the adverse effects of agricultural income shocks. I analyze data from the National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS), integrating them with local agricultural income fluctuations, as determined by the interaction between global agricultural price fluctuations and local agricultural conditions, alongside local indicators of financial development. The findings reveal that proximity to rural banks significantly mitigates the detrimental impacts of these shocks on child health. This challenges the conventional notion that rural communities with limited financial sector access experience minimal benefits. Instead, it uncovers the indirect yet substantial advantages of expanded financial accessibility in safeguarding children's health during economic instability.