Majda Benzidia*, Tanguy Le Fur**
Edward Levavasseur: edward.levavasseur[at]etu.univ-amu.fr
Lara Vivian: lara.vivian[at]univ-amu.fr
*Whether consciously or not, boys and girls are perceived differently by others and themselves. Identified as boys or girls, children confronted to gendered-biased expectations integrate the stereotype attached to their gender and act accordingly. School is unfortunately a place where stereotypes exist, proliferate and are integrated into the collective beliefs. This paper aims to quantify gender stereotypes at school. How does self perceptions and gendered oriented expectations of others influence children choice and behaviors ? Using PISA database with a specific focus on mathematic we will first construct through multiple correspondence analysis an index of self confidence. In a second step we regress this index over PISA scores and other control variables and apply an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition in order to see which part of the difference between boys and gilrs self-confidence is explained by characteristics and which part is not. We can attribute the remaining part of self-confidence not explained by difference in characteristics to stereotypes.
**Since the 80s, the US has engaged on a different growth path than other developed economies ; the reduction in hours worked stopped, and improvements in life expectancy slowed down despite the surge in health expenditure. Is there a link between those trends ? The difference in hours worked between the US and Western Europe can be explained by differences in preferences for leisure. Do such differences also explain a lower life expectancy and a higher share of medical spending ? We answer this question by introducing the notion of health captial in a simple exogenous growth model and assuming that its depreciation rate increases with effort. We find that lower preferences for leisure as in the US lead to both a higher number of hours worked and a higher share of health expenditure at the steady state. However, under constant returns in health investment, it also leads to a higher life expectancy and therefore does not explain the American health disadvantage.