Sarah Vincent*, Elie Vidal-Naquet**
Kenza Elass: kenza.elass[at]univ-amu.fr
Camille Hainnaux: camille.hainnaux[at]univ-amu.fr
Daniela Horta Saenz: daniela.horta-saenz[at]univ-amu.fr
Jade Ponsard: jade.ponsard[at]univ-amu.fr
*In 1976, Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, initiated a 6-months family planning program of compulsory sterilisations. This program targeted first men and led to 8.3 million sterilizations, exceeding the government's target by 190%. These forced sterilisations could have impacted intra-household bargaining and behaviour because the option of the husband to end the relationship deteriorated. In this paper, I plan to theoretically and empirically study gender responses to this program. Collecting first-hand historical data on the number of sterilizations prior to and during this program, I intend to use the difference as a measure for forced sterilization. I aim to observe its impact on conflict within the household by using female suicide rates. Using the Indian Human Development Survey, I also plan to look at the long-term local impact of this program on gender norms.
**Among a series of environmental measures taken in 2008, the French government implemented in 2009 the half-reimbursement by the employer of the public transport costs. This paper aims to estimate the effect of a decrease in commuting costs on job search behavior, using an administrative database with information on employment and unemployment spell. I use a differences-in-differences strategy exploiting variation in the use of public transport at the communal level. I find that a 10% increase in the treatment intensity increases the commuting distance by 3.2% and the hourly wage by 0.5%. The effect is stronger for women and low-paid workers. Finally, a sketch of modeling based on Manning and Petrongolo (2017) is introduced. In this framework, lower transport costs improve the accessibility of jobs but can create congestion effects. The structural estimation of the model will allow quantifying the different mechanisms and performing counterfactual exercises.