Solène Masson*, Audrey Etienne**
Edward Levavasseur: edward.levavasseur[at]etu.univ-amu.fr
Lara Vivian: lara.vivian[at]univ-amu.fr
*The specific situation of the Brazilian Amazon both for biodiversity concerns and characteristics of the development through this remote area make challenging to get reliable data. This paper investigates the effect of land use regulation through creation of conservation units on poverty in the Brazilian Amazon during the last decade. Based on GIS data and household demographic census of 2000 and 2010, we use a difference and difference estimation to deal with the endogeneous relationship of the environmental monitoring and poverty rate. We first expect to find a negative effect following the creation of conservation units on the general poverty. We also expect to examine the distributional effect of the unit conservation creation on rural population.
**With the increase in national debts, public sectors are under high pressure in many countries and the productivity and wage levels of civil servants are under scrutiny. The need for appropriate comparison with their private sector counterparts is stronger than ever. In this study, we suggest novel evidence for France by conducting a comprehensive assessment of the public sector wage gaps throughout the distribution and over a long period (1988-2010). We exploit a large panel of French salary workers drawn from administrative data. We estimate the premia/penalties of the public sector on the unconditional wage distribution while originally accounting for fixed effects and a jackknife correction for potential incidental parameter bias. We show that the sectoral wage gap oscillates around zero in the lower part of the distribution and is negative for higher wage levels. Time changes since 1988 are consistently explained by a mix of political and business cycles. We find a compressing effect of the public sector, which is partly hidden by the incidental parameter bias in standard FE quantile estimation. The positive selection into the public sector tends to fade away, especially for upper wages. A\ decline in the relative quality of the public workforce is possibly explained by the apparent long-term degradation of the public wage gap itself and by the acceleration of job openings through less-selective recruitment schemes.