Economics of attention: The gender-based bing communication study on depressionJournal articleYulin Hswen, Ulrich Nguemdjo, Elad Yom-Tom and Bruno Ventelou, SSM - Population Health, Volume 17, pp. 100993, 2022

This study examines the impact of personalized gender-based communication to encourage the screening of depression and seeking out mental health care consultation. An internet search engine advertisement was deployed on Bing, Microsoft during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in the Provence–Alpes–Côte d'Azur (PACA) region in France during the month of May 2020, the height of the France lockdowns. A two-armed study was conducted with Arm A containing a non-personalized (control) advertisement and Arm B containing a personalized gender-based advertisement. 53,185 advertisements were shown between the two arms. Results show that receiving a personalized gender-based message increases the probability of clicking on the advertisement. However, upon clicking the advertisement, there was no significant difference in the completion of the depression questionnaire between the two groups. These results suggest that although personalized gender messaging is effective at drawing in a greater click rate, it did not increase, nor decreased, the conversion rate to monitor depression by self-assessment.

Nudging for lockdown: behavioural insights from an online experimentJournal articleThierry Blayac, Dimitri Dubois, Sebastien Duchêne, Phu Nguyen-Van, Ismael Rafai, Bruno Ventelou and Marc Willinger, Social Psychology, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp. 133-151, 2022

We test the effectiveness of a social comparison nudge (SCN) to enhance lockdown compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic using a French representative sample (N = 1,154). Respondents were randomly assigned to a favorable/unfavorable informational feedback (daily road traffic mobility patterns, in Normandy - a region of France) on peer lockdown compliance. Our dependent variable was the intention to comply with a possible future lockdown. We controlled for risk, time, and social preferences and tested the effectiveness of the nudge. We found no evidence of the effectiveness of the SCN among the whole French population, but the nudge was effective when its recipient and the reference population shared the same geographical location (Normandy). Exploratory results on this subsample (N = 52) suggest that this effectiveness could be driven by noncooperative individuals.

Quand le messager est plus important que le message : étude expérimentale en Afrique francophone sur l’utilisation des connaissancesJournal articleAmandine Fillol, Esther Mc Sween-Cadieux, Bruno Ventelou, Marie-Pier Larose, Ulrich Boris Ngue Kamguem, Kadidiatou Kadio, Christian Dagenais and Valéry Ridde, Revue francophone de recherche sur le transfert et l’utilisation des connaissances, Volume 6, Issue 3, 2022

Contexte : Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser.
Méthodes : L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes de politique conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine.
Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain/européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne.
Interprétation : Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.

Les attendus d’une approche d’économie comportementale pour les décisions individuelles face à la pandémie de COVID-19 : succès et déceptionsJournal articleThierry Blayac, Dimitri Dubois, Sebastien Duchêne, Phu Nguyen-Van, Ismael Rafai, Bruno Ventelou and Marc Willinger, médecine/sciences, Volume 38, Issue 6-7, pp. 594-599, 2022

Dans le cadre du premier appel à projet « Flash-COVID-19 » de l’Agence nationale de la recherche, nous avons mobilisé des méthodes récentes de l’économie comportementale afin de mieux comprendre les décisions des individus face à la crise sanitaire due à la pandémie de COVID-19 (<i>coronavirus disease 2019<i/>) et d’identifier les paramètres pouvant influencer le respect des mesures sanitaires. Cet article introduit brièvement l’économie comportementale, présente un compte rendu des attendus du projet CONFINOBS (Observance et observation des mesures barrières et du confinement : une approche d’économie comportementale) et de ses méthodes, puis il propose une synthèse des résultats obtenus.

Individuals’ willingness to provide geospatial global positioning system (GPS) data from their smartphone during the COVID-19 pandemicJournal articleYulin Hswen, Ulrich Nguemdjo, Elad Yom-Tov, Gregory M. Marcus and Bruno Ventelou, Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp. 336, 2022

This study aims to evaluate people’s willingness to provide their geospatial global positioning system (GPS) data from their smartphones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the self-determination theory, the addition of monetary incentives to encourage data provision may have an adverse effect on spontaneous donation. Therefore, we tested if a crowding-out effect exists between financial and altruistic motivations. Participants were randomized to different frames of motivational messages regarding the provision of their GPS data based on (1) self-interest, (2) pro-social benefit, and (3) monetary compensation. We also sought to examine the use of a negative versus positive valence in the framing of the different armed messages. 1055 participants were recruited from 41 countries with a mean age of 34 years on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform. Participants living in India or in Brazil were more willing to provide their GPS data compared to those living in the United States. No significant differences were seen between positive and negative valence framing messages. Monetary incentives of $5 significantly increased participants’ willingness to provide GPS data. Half of the participants in the self-interest and pro-social arms agreed to provide their GPS data and almost two-thirds of participants were willing to provide their data in exchange for $5. If participants refused the first framing proposal, they were followed up with a “Vickrey auction” (a sealed-bid second-priced auction, SPSBA). An average of $17 bid was accepted in the self-interest condition to provide their GPS data, and the average “bid” of $21 was for the pro-social benefit experimental condition. These results revealed that a crowding-out effect between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations did not take place in our sample of internet users. Framing and incentivization can be used in combination to influence the acquisition of private GPS smartphone data. Financial incentives can increase data provision to a greater degree with no losses on these intrinsic motivations, to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.

What drives the acceptability of restrictive health policies: An experimental assessment of individual preferences for anti-COVID 19 strategiesJournal articleThierry Blayac, Dimitri Dubois, Sebastien Duchêne, Phu Nguyen-Van, Bruno Ventelou and Marc Willinger, Economic Modelling, Volume 116, pp. 106047, 2022

The public acceptability of a policy is an important issue in democracies, in particular for anti-COVID-19 policies, which require the adherence of the population to be applicable and efficient. Discrete choice experiment (DCE) can help elicit preference ranking among various policies for the whole population and subgroups. Using a representative sample of the French population, we apply DCE methods to assess the acceptability of various anti-COVID-19 measures, separately and as a package. Owing to the methods, we determine the extent to which acceptability depends on personal characteristics: political orientation, health vulnerability, or age. The young population differs in terms of policy preferences and their claim for monetary compensation, suggesting a tailored policy for them. The paper provides key methodological tools based on microeconomic evaluation of individuals’ preferences for improving the design of public health policies.

United, can we be stronger? Did French general practitioners in multi-professional groups provide more chronic care follow-up during lockdown?Journal articleAnna Zaytseva, Pierre Verger and Bruno Ventelou, BMC Health Services Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp. 519, 2022

Given the importance of the continuous follow-up of chronic patients, we evaluated the performance of French private practice general practitioners (GPs) practicing in multi-professional group practices (MGP) regarding chronic care management during the first Covid-19 lockdown in Spring 2020 compared to GPs not in MGP. We consider two outcomes: continuity of care provision for chronic patients and proactivity in contacting these patients.
The cross-sectional web questionnaire of 1191 GPs took place in April 2020. We exploit self-reported data on: 1) the frequency of consultations for chronic patients during lockdown compared to their "typical" week before the pandemic, along with 2) GPs' proactive behaviour when contacting their chronic patients. We use probit and bivariate probit models (adjusted for endogeneity of choice of engagement in MGP) to test whether GPs in MGP had significantly different responses to the Covid-19 crisis compared to those practicing outside MGP.
Out of 1191 participants (response rate: 43.1%), around 40% of GPs were female and 34% were younger than 50 years old. Regression results indicate that GPs in MGP were less likely to experience a drop in consultations related to complications of chronic diseases (- 45.3%). They were also more proactive (+ 13.4%) in contacting their chronic patients compared to their peers practicing outside MGP.
We demonstrate that the MGP organisational formula was beneficial to the follow-up of patients with chronic conditions during the lockdown; therefore, it appears beneficial to expand integrated practices, since they perform better when facing a major shock. Further research is needed to confirm the efficiency of these integrated practices outside the particular pandemic setup.

When the messenger is more important than the message: an experimental study of evidence use in francophone AfricaJournal articleAmandine Fillol, Esther McSween-Cadieux, Bruno Ventelou, Marie-Pier Larose, Ulrich Boris Ngue Kanguem, Kadidiatou Kadio, Christian Dagenais and Valéry Ridde, Health Research Policy and Systems, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp. 57, 2022

Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context.
The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African.
The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university.
The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices.

Pour huit médecins généralistes sur dix, la vaccination contre la Covid-19 est le meilleur moyen d’éviter de nouvelles vagues épidémiquesReportPierre Verger, Dimitri Scronias, Maxime Bergeat, Hélène Chaput, Romain Lutaud, Muriel Barlet, Élisabeth Fery-Lemonnier, Bruno Ventelou, Jean-François Buyck, Marie-Astrid Metten, et al., Number 1187, pp. 7, 2021

Au cours des mois de novembre et décembre 2020, les participants au quatrième Panel d’observation des pratiques et des conditions d’exercice en médecine générale ont à nouveau été interrogés sur leurs perceptions et leurs opinions quant aux futurs vaccins contre la Covid-19.
Huit médecins généralistes sur 10 considèrent que la vaccination est le meilleur moyen pour éviter la survenue de nouvelles vagues épidémiques de Covid-19. 8 médecins sur 10 estiment également qu’ils ont un rôle à jouer dans la vaccination de la population contre la Covid-19 et plus de la moitié sont favorables à une obligation de vaccination pour les professionnels de santé. Globalement, les trois quarts des médecins accepteraient a priori de se faire vacciner contre la Covid-19 et de le recommander à leurs patients. L’opinion individuelle sur la vaccination contre la Covid-19 a par ailleurs changé chez certains médecins : entre l’enquête du 6 octobre au 15 novembre 2020 et celle du 24 novembre au 27 décembre 2020, 1 médecin sur 10 est passé de l’hésitation ou de la réticence face au vaccin à l’acceptation – modérée ou forte – tandis qu’1 médecin sur 10 a fait le chemin inverse.

La couverture sanitaire universelle au SAHEL : Le cas du Mali et du TchadJournal articleSameera Awawda, Mohammad Abu-Zaineh and Bruno Ventelou, UnisSahel - Couverture Universelle en Santé au Sahel, 2021

Cette étude vise à évaluer la faisabilité et l’impact macro-économique de l’extension de la couverture sanitaire à l’ensemble de la population en vue de l’atteinte de la couverture universelle (CSU) au Mali et au Tchad. Nous utilisons une approche méthodologique par micro-simulation pour examiner l’impact d’un scénario de CSU sur les dépenses de santé des ménages ainsi que les recettes et les dépenses publiques. Etant donné les différents taux actuels de couverture de la population, les résultats montrent que l’atteinte de l'objectif coûterait aux gouvernements du Mali et du Tchad 17 182 et 44 415 millions de FCFA, respectivement. L’atteinte de la CSU pourrait augmenter l’accès aux soins des ménages, mais aussi le fardeau budgétaire du gouvernement ; il faudrait donc disposer de bonnes stratégies de financement public. L’étude évalue donc en parallèle les bénéfices à attendre d’une hausse de la prime d’assurance maladie.